Advertisement

Psychopathology and Bilingualism

Chapter
Part of the The Bilingual Mind and Brain Book Series book series (BMBBS)

Abstract

This chapter examines the relationship of psychopathology and bilingualism. Psychopathology encompasses psychological dysfunction, which is defined as impairment in cognition, emotion, and behavior. Because second language (L2) acquisition also impacts the cognitive, emotional, and behavioral domains, it is possible bilingualism may interact with psychopathology, resulting in a unique understanding, expression, and presentation of mental illness. While the literature exploring the intersection of psychopathology and bilingualism is scant, there is evidence of differential symptomology observed across languages spoken. The two main areas of research discussed focus on the dynamics of L2 acquisition and psychopathology, and the barriers that speaking an L2 can impose on the process of assessing and diagnosing mental illness. Moreover, the chapter also includes a discussion of the methodological and theoretical shortcomings present in much of the literature exploring the mechanisms and influence of bilingualism and psychopathology.

Keywords

Bilingualism Psychopathology Mental health Emotions Language Mental illness 

References

  1. Alarcón, R. D., & Foulks, E. F. (1995a). Personality disorders and culture: Contemporary and clinical views (Part A). Cultural Diversity and Mental Health, 1, 3–14.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Alarcón, R. D., & Foulks, E. F. (1995b). Personality disorders and culture: Contemporary and clinical views (Part B). Cultural Diversity and Mental Health, 1, 79–91.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Alba-Ferrara, L., Fernyhough, C., Weis, S., Mitchell, R. L. C., & Hausmann, M. (2012). Contributions of emotional prosody comprehension deficits to the formation of auditory verbal hallucinations in schizophrenia. Clinical Psychology Review, 32, 244–250.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Allen, P., & Modinos, G. (2012). Structural neuroimaging in psychotic patients with auditory verbal hallucinations. In J. D. Blom & I. E. C. Sommer (Eds.), Hallucinations: Research and Practice. Springer Science+Business: Berlin, Germany.Google Scholar
  5. American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.). Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  6. Asarnow, J. R., & Callan, J. W. (1985). Boys with peer adjustment problems social cognitive processes. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 53, 80–87.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Astington, J. W., & Jenkins, J. M. (1999). A longitudinal study of the relation between language and theory-of-mind development. Development and Psychopathology, 35, 1311–1320.Google Scholar
  8. Barlow, D. H., & Durand, V. M. (2015). Abnormal psychology: An integrative approach (7th ed.). Melbourne, Australia: Cengage Learning.Google Scholar
  9. Bastiaansen, L., Rossi, G., Schotte, C., & De Fruyt, F. (2011). The structure of personality disorders: Comparing the DSM-IV-TR Axis II classification with the Five-Factor Model framework using structural equation modeling. Journal of Personality Disorders, 25, 378–396.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Ben-Zeev, S. (1977). The effect of bilingualism in children from Spanish-English low economic neighborhoods on cognitive development and cognitive strategy. Working Papers on Bilingualism, 84, 83–122.Google Scholar
  11. Berenbaum, H., & Oltmanns, T. F. (1992). Emotional experience and expression in schizophrenia and depression. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 101, 37–44.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bersudsky, Y., Fine, J., Gorjalstan, I., Chen, O., & Waters, J. (2005). Schizophrenia and second language acquisition. Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry, 29, 535–542.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Bhui, K. (1999). Common mental disorders among people with origins in or immigrant from India and Pakistan. International Review of Psychiatry, 11, 136–144.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Bialystok, E., Craik, F.I., Klein, R., & Viswanathan, M. (2004). Bilingualism, aging, and cognitive control: Evidence from the Simon task. Psychology of Aging, 19, 290–303.Google Scholar
  15. Bhui, K., Bhugra, D., Goldberg, D., Sauer, J., & Tylee, A. (2004). Assessing the prevalence of depression in Punjabi and English primary care attenders: The role of culture, physical illness and somatic symptoms. Transcultural Psychiatry, 41, 307–322.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Bialystok, E., Craik, F. I. M., & Luk, G. (2012). Bilingualism: Consequences for mind and brain. Trends in Cognitive Science, 16, 240–250.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Bloom, L., & Lahey, M. (1978). Language development and language disorders. New York, NY: Wiley.Google Scholar
  18. Bond, M. H., & Lai, T. M. (1986). Embarrassment and code-switching into a second language. Journal of Social Psychology, 126, 179–186.Google Scholar
  19. Bond, M. H., & Yang, K. (1982). Ethnic affirmation versus cross-cultural accommodation: The variable impact of questionnaire language on Chinese bilinguals from Hong Kong. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 13, 169–185.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Briley, D. A., Morris, M. W., & Simonson, I. (2005). Cultural chameleons: Biculturals, conformity motives, and decision making. Journal of Consumer Psychology, 15, 351–362.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Brion-Meisels, S., Selman, R. L., & Hoffman, A. M. (1996). From fight or flight to collaboration: A framework for understanding individual and institutional development in the school. In A. M. Hoffman (Ed.), Schools, violence, and society (pp. 163–184). Eastport, CT: Praeger.Google Scholar
  22. Brune, M. (2001). Social cognition and psychopathology in an evolutionary perspective: Current status and proposals for research. Psychopathology, 34, 85–94.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Bucci, W. (1997). Psychoanalysis and cognitive science: A multiple code theory. New York, NY: Guilford Publications.Google Scholar
  24. Bucci, W., & Freedman, N. (1981). The language of depression. Bulletin of the Menninger Clinic, 45, 334–358.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Butcher, J. N., Graham, J. R., Ben-Porath, Y. S., Tellegen, A., Gahlstrom, W. G., & Kaemmer, B. (2001). Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory—2 (MMPI-2) Manual. Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press.Google Scholar
  26. Cabassa, L. J., Hansen, M. C., Palinkas, L. A., & Ell, K. (2008). Azucar y nervios: Explanatory models and treatment experiences of Hispanics with diabetes and depression. Social Science and Medicine, 66, 2413–2424.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Caplan, R., Guthrie, D., & Komo, S. (1996). Conversational repair in schizophrenic and normal children. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 35, 950–958.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Castañeda, R., & Franco, H. (1985). Sex and ethnic distribution of borderline personality disorder in an inpatient sample. American Journal of Psychiatry, 142, 1202–1203.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Centeno, J. G., & Obler, L. K. (2001). Principles of bilingualism. In M. O. Ponton & J. Leon-Carrion (Eds.), Neuropsychology and the Hispanic patient (pp. 75–86). Mahwah: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
  30. Charnas, J. W., Hilsenroth, M. J., Zodan, J., & Blais, M. A. (2010). Should I stay or should I go? Personality Assessment Inventory and Rorschach indices of early withdrawal from psychotherapy. Psychotherapy: Theory, Research, Practice, Training, 47, 484–499.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Chavira, D. A., Grilo, C. M., Shea, M. T., Yen, S., Gunderson, J. G., Morey, L. C., et al. (2003). Ethnicity and four personality disorders. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 44, 483–491.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Chen, S. X., Benet-Martinez, V., & Ng, J. C. K. (2014). Does language affect personality perception? A functional approach to testing the Whorfian hypothesis. Journal of Personality, 82, 130–143.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Chen, S. X., & Bond, M. H. (2010). Two languages, two personalities? Examining language effects on the expression of personality in a bilingual context. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 36, 1514–1528.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Cohen, C. I., Natarajan, N., Araujo, M., & Solanki, D. (2013). Prevalence of negative symptoms and associated factors in older adults with schizophrenia spectrum disorder. American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 21, 100–107.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Collier, V. (1995). Acquiring a second language for school. Directions in Language and Education, 1(4). Retrieved from www.usc.edu/dept/education/CMMR/CollierThomas_Acquiring_L2_for_School. Acquiring a second language for school. Vol. 1: National Clearinghouse for Bilingual Education.
  36. Coy, K., Speltz, M. L., Deklyen, M., & Jones, K. (2001). Social-cognitive processes in preschool boys with and without oppositional defiant disorder. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 29, 107–119.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Cummins, J. (1979). Linguistic interdependence and the educational development of bilingual children. Review of Educational Research, 49, 222–251.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Cummins, J. (1980). The cross-lingual dimensions of language proficiency: Implications for bilingual education and the optimal age issue. TESOL Quarterly, 14, 175–187.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Cutting, A. L., & Dunn, J. (1999). Theory of mind, emotion understanding, language, and family background: Individual differences and interrelations. Child Development, 70, 853–865.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. de Bernier, G. L., Kim, Y. R., & Sen, P. (2014). A systematic review of the global prevalence of personality disorders in Asian populations. Personality and Mental Health, 8, 264–275.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. de Bruin, A., Treccani, B., & Della Sala, S. (2015). Cognitive advantage in bilingualism: An example of publication bias? Psychological Science, 26, 99–107.Google Scholar
  42. de Houwer, A. (2009). Bilingual first language acquisition. Toronto, ON: Multilingual Matters.Google Scholar
  43. De Zulueta, F. I. S. (1984). The implications of bilingualism in the study and treatment of psychotic disorders: A review. Psychological Medicine, 14, 541–557.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. De Zulueta, F. I. S., Gene-Cos, N., & Grachev, S. (2001). Differential psychotic symptomatology in polyglot patients: Case reports and their implications. British Journal of Medical Psychology, 74, 277–292.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Del Castillo, J. C. (1970). Influence of language upon symptomatology in foreign-born patients. American Journal of Psychiatry, 127, 160–162.Google Scholar
  46. Desmond, J. E., & Glover, G. H. (2002). Estimating sample size in functional MRI (fMRI) neuroimaging studies: Statistical power analysis. Journal of Neuroscience Methods, 118, 115–128.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Dewaele, J. (2004). The emotional force of swearwords and taboo words in the speech of multilinguals. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development, 25, 204–223.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Dewaele, J. M., & Pavlenko, A. (2002). Emotion vocabulary in interlanguage. Language Learning, 52, 263–322.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Dodge, K. A., Laird, R., Lochman, J. E., & Zeli, A. (2002). Multidimensional latent-construct analysis of children’s social information processing patterns: Correlations with aggressive behaviour problems. Psychological Assessment, 14, 60–73.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Dodge, K. A., Lansford, J. E., Burks, V. S., Bates, J. E., Pettit, G. S., Fontaine, R., et al. (2003). Peer rejection and social information-processing factors in the development of aggressive behaviour problems in children. Child Development, 74, 374–393.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Dodge, K. A., Pettit, G. S., Bates, J. E., & Valente, E. (1995). Social information processing patterns partially mediate the effect of early physical abuse on later conduct problems. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 104, 632–643.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Dores, M., M’Bodj, M., M’Bodj, B., & N’Dao, S. (1972). Bilinguisme et psychopathologie [Bilingualism and psychopathology]. Psychopathologie Africaine, 8, 425–441.Google Scholar
  53. Dugan, J. E. (2014). Second language acquisition and schizophrenia. Second Language Research, 30, 307–321.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Dunn, A. L., & Fox Tree, J. E. (2009). A quick, gradient bilingual dominance scale. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 12, 273–289.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Endler, N. S., & Kocovski, N. L. (2002). Personality disorders at the crossroads. Journal of Personality Disorders, 16, 487–502.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Ervin, S. M. (1964). Language and TAT content in bilinguals. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 68, 500–507.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. European Commission (2006). Special Eurobarometer 243: Europeans and their languages. Retrieved from http://ec.europa.eu/public_opinion/archives/ebs/ebs_243_sum_en.pdf
  58. Fabrega, H. (1994). Personality disorders as medical entities: A cultural interpretation. Journal of Personality Disorders, 8, 149–167.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Feltmate, K., & Kay-Raining Bird, E. (2008). Language learning in four bilingual children with Down syndrome: A detailed analysis of vocabulary and morphosyntax. Canadian Journal of Speech–Language Pathology and Audiology, 32, 6–20.Google Scholar
  60. Fernandez, K., Boccaccini, M. T., & Noland, R. M. (2008). Detecting over-and underreporting of psychopathology with the Spanish-language Personality Assessment Inventory: Findings from a simulation study with bilingual speakers. Psychological Assessment, 20, 189–194.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Fillmore, L. W. (1991). When learning a second language means losing the first. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 6, 323–346.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Folke, T., Ouzia, J., Bright, P., De Martino, B., & Filippi, R. (2016). A bilingual disadvantage in metacognitive processing. Cognition, 150, 119–132.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Fontani-Salvador, P., & Rogers, R. (1997). Spanish versions of the MMPI-2 and PAI: An investigation of concurrent validity with Hispanic patients. Assessment, 4, 29–39.Google Scholar
  64. Fonseca-Pedrero, E., Paino, M., Lemos-Giraldez, S., & Muñiz, J. (2013). Cluster B maladaptive personality traits in Spanish adolescents. Revista de Psiquiatría y Salud Mental, 6, 129–138.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Gardner, B. O., Boccaccini, M. T., Bitting, B. S., & Edens, J. F. (2015). Personality Assessment Inventory scores as predictor of misconduct, recidivism, and violence: A meta-analytic review. Psychological Assessment, 27, 534–544.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Garrido, M. & Velasquez, R. (2006). Interpretation of Latino/Latina MMPI-2 Profiles: Review and Application of Empirical Findings and Cultural- Linguistic Considerations. In J.N. Butcher (Ed.) The MMPI-2-: A practitioner’s guide. (pp. 477-504). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. Google Scholar
  67. Gonzalez-Reigosa, F. (1976). The anxiety-arousing effect of taboo words in bilinguals. In C. D. Spielberger & R. Diaz-Guerrero (Eds.), Cross-cultural anxiety (pp. 89–105). Washington, DC: Hemisphere.Google Scholar
  68. Grosjean, F. (2010). Bilingual: Life and reality. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Gross, R., Olfson, M., Gameroff, M. J., Carasquillo, O., Shea, S., Feder, A., et al. (2005). Depression and glycemic control in Hispanic primary care patients with diabetes. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 20, 460–466.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Guarnaccia, P. J., Lewis-Fernandez, R., & Marano, M. R. (2003). Toward a Puerto Rican popular nosology: Nervios and ataque de nervios. Culture, Medicine, and Psychiatry, 27, 337–366.Google Scholar
  71. Gutiérrez, K. D., Zepeda, M., & Castro, D. C. (2010). Advancing early literacy learning for all children: Implications of the NELP report for dual-language learners. Educational Researcher, 39, 334–339.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Guttfreund, D. G. (1990). Effects of language usage on the emotional experience of Spanish-English and English-Spanish bilinguals. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 58, 604–607.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Hakuta, K. (1986). Mirror of language: The debate of bilingualism. New York, NY: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  74. Hakuta, K., & D’Andrea, D. (1992). Some properties of bilingual maintenance and loss in Mexican background high school students. Applied Linguistics, 13, 72–99.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Hakuta, K., & Pease-Alvarez, L. (1994). Proficiency, choice and attitudes in bilingual Mexican-American children. In G. Extra & L. T. Verhoeven (Eds.), The cross-linguistic study of bilingual development (pp. 145–164). Amsterdam: North-Holland.Google Scholar
  76. Harris, C. L., Aycicegi, A., & Gleason, J. B. (2003). Taboo words and reprimands elicit greater autonomic reactivity in a first language than in a second language. Applied PsychoLinguistics, 24, 561–579.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Harris C. L., Gleason J. B., Ayçiçegi A. (2006). When is a first language more emotional? Psychophysiological evidence from bilingual speakers. In A. Pavlenko (Ed.), Bilingual minds: Emotional experience, expression, and representation (pp. 257–283). Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.Google Scholar
  78. Hemphill, R. E. (1971). Auditory hallucinations in polyglots. South African Medical Journal, 45, 1391–1394.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Heredia, R. R., & Cieślicka, A. B. (2014). Bilingual memory storage: compound-coordinate and derivatives. In R. R. Heredia & J. Altarriba (Eds.), Foundations of bilingual memory (pp. 11–39). New York, NY: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Hofstede, G., & McCrae, R. R. (2004). Personality and culture revisited: Linking traits and dimensions of culture. Cross-Cultural Research, 38, 52–88.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Hong, Y.Y., Chiu, C.Y., & Kung, T.M. (1997). Bringing culture out in front: Effects of cultural meaning system activation on social cognition. In K. Leung, Y. Kashima, U. Kim, & S. Yamaguchi (Eds.), Progress in Asian Psychology (Vol. 1, pp. 135–146). Singapore: Wiley.Google Scholar
  82. Hughes, G. W. (1981). Neuropsychiatric aspects of bilingualism: A brief review. British Journal of Psychiatry, 139, 25–28.Google Scholar
  83. Hull, R.A. (2003). How does bilingualism matter? A meta-analytic tale of two hemispheres. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Texas A&M University. College Station, TX.Google Scholar
  84. Jaspers, K. (1963). General psychopathology. (J. Hoenig & M.W. Hamilton, Trans. Manchester, UK: Manchester University Press.Google Scholar
  85. Javier, R. A. (1989). Linguistic consideration in the treatment of bilinguals. Psychoanalytic Psychology, 6, 87–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Javier, R. A. (2007). The bilingual mind: Thinking, feeling, and speaking in two languages. New York, NY: Springer.Google Scholar
  87. Javier, R. A., Barroso, F., & Muñoz, M. (1993). Autobiographical memory in bilinguals. Journal of Psycholinguistic Research, 2, 319–338.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Kashima, E. S., & Kashima, Y. (1998). Culture and language: The case of cultural dimensions in personal pronoun use. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 29, 461–486.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Kay-Raining Bird, E. (2006). The case for bilingualism in children with Down syndrome. In R. Paul (Ed.), Language disorders from a developmental perspective: Essays in honor of Robin S. Chapman (pp. 249–275). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
  90. Kay-Raining Bird, E., Cleave, P., Trudeau, N., Thordardottir, E., Sutton, A., & Thorpe, A. (2005). The language abilities of bilingual children with Down syndrome. American Journal of Speech–Language Pathology, 14, 187–199.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Kay-Raining Bird, E., Lamond, E., & Holden, J. (2012). Survey of bilingualism in autism spectrum disorders. International Journal of Language and Communication Disorders, 47, 52–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Kleinman, A. (1988). The illness narratives: Suffering, healing, and the human condition. New York, NY: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  93. Kleinman, A., & Good, B. (1985). Culture and depression: Studies in anthropology and cross-cultural psychiatry of affect and disorder. Berkley, CA: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  94. Kohnert, K., Yim, D., Nett, K., Kan, P. F., & Duran, L. (2005). Intervention with linguistically diverse preschool children: A focus on developing home language(s). Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in the Schools, 36, 251–263.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Krueger, R. F., & Markon, K. E. (2006). Understanding psychopathology: Melding behavior genetics, personality, and quantitative psychology to develop an empirically based model. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 15(3), 113–117.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Laguzzi, A. L. (2014). Bilingüismo y psicoterapia. Psicodebate, 14, 33–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Leff, J. (1981). Psychiatry around the globe: A transcultural view. New York, NY: Marcel Dekker.Google Scholar
  98. Levy, R. (1983). Self and emotions. Ethos, 11, 128–134.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Lewis-Fernandez, R., & Kleinman, A. (1994). Culture, personality, and psychopathology. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 103, 67–71.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Lindenmayer, J. P., & Khan, A. (2006). Psychological disorder. In J. A. Lieberman, T. S. Stroup, & D. O. Perkins (Eds.), Textbook of schizophrenia (pp. 187–222). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric.Google Scholar
  101. Livesley, W. J., Schroeder, M. L., Jackson, D. N., & Jang, K. L. (1994). Categorical distinctions in the study of personality disorder: Implications for classification. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 103, 6–17.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Lucio, G. M. E., Reyes-Lagunes, I., & Scott, R. L. (1994). MMPI–2 for Mexico: Translation and adaptation. Journal of Personality Assessment, 63, 105–116.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Lukianowicz, N. (1962). Auditory hallucinations in polyglot subjects. Psychiatria et Neurologia, 143, 274–294.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Lysaker, P. H., Olesek, K. L., Warman, D. M., Martin, J. M., Salzman, A. K., Nicolo, G., et al. (2011). Metacognition in schizophrenia: Correlates and stability of deficits in theory of mind and self-reflectivity. Psychiatry Research, 190, 18–22.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Mahler, M. S., Pine, F., & Bergman, A. (1975). The psychological birth of the human infant. New York, NY: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  106. Malgady, R. G., & Costantino, G. (1998). Symptom severity in bilingual Hispanics as a function of clinician ethnicity and language of interview. Psychological Assessment, 10, 120–127.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Malgady, R. G., Rogler, L. H., & Constantino, G. (1987). Ethnocultural and linguistic bias in mental health evaluation of Hispanics. American Psychologist, 42, 228–234.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Malgady, R. G., & Zayas, L. H. (2001). Cultural and linguistic considerations in psychodiagnosis with Hispanics: An empirically informed process model. Social Work, 46, 39–49.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Malo Ocejo, P., Medrano Albeniz, J., & Uriarte Uriarte, J. J. (1991). Alucinaciones auditivas en sujetos bilingües [Auditory hallucinations in bilingual subjects]. Archivos de Neurobiologiá, 54, 15–19.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. Marcos, L. R. (1976). Bilinguals in psychotherapy: Language as an emotional barrier. American Journal of Psychotherapy, 30, 552–560.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. Marcos, L.R., Alpert, M., Urcuyo, L. & Kesselman, M. (1973). The effect of interview language on the evaluation of psychopathology in Spanish-American schizophrenic patients American Journal of Psychiatry, 130, 549–553.Google Scholar
  112. Marcos, L. R., Urcuyo, L., Kesselman, M., & Alpert, M. (1973). The language barrier in evaluating Spanish-American patients. Archives of General Psychiatry, 29, 655–659.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Marcus, H. R., & Kitayama, S. (1991). Culture and the self: Implications for cognition, emotion, and motivation. Psychological Review, 98, 224–253.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Marian, V., & Kaushanskaya, M. (2004). Self-construal and emotion in bicultural bilinguals. Journal of Memory and Language, 51, 190–201.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Marian, V., & Neisser, U. (2000). Language-dependent recall of autobiographical memories. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 129, 361–368.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Marton, K. A., Abramoff, B., & Rosenzweig, S. (2005). Social cognition and language in children with specific language impairment (SLI). Journal of Communication Disorders, 38, 143–162.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Mattulis, A. C. (1977). Schizophrenia: Experiment in teaching a new foreign language to inpatients as an analeptic ego aid. Dynamische Psychiatrie, 10, 459–472.Google Scholar
  118. McGilloway, A., Hall, R. E., Lee, T., & Bhui, K. (2010). A systematic review of personality disorder, race, and ethnicity: Prevalence, aetiology, and treatment. BMC Psychiatry, 10, 1–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Mesquita, B., & Ellsworth, P. (2001). The role of culture in appraisal. In K. R. Scherer, A. Schorr, & T. Johnstone (Eds.), Appraisal processes in emotion: Theory, methods, research (pp. 233–248). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  120. Montgomery, T., & Orozco, S. (1985). Mexican Americans’ performance on the MMPI as a function of level of acculturation. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 41, 203–212.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Moretti, R., Bava, A., Torre, P., Antonello, R. M., Zorzon, M., & Zivadinov, R. (2001). Bilingual aphasia and subcortical-cortical lesions. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 92, 803–814.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Morey, L. C. (2007). The Personality Assessment Inventory: Professional manual. Lutz, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources.Google Scholar
  123. Muller-Vahl, K. R. (2012). Monolingual coprolalia in bilingual patients with Tourette syndrome. Movement Disorders, 27, 1468.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Nardelli, A. (2014). Most Europeans can speak multiple languages: UK and Ireland not so much. Retrieved from http://www.theguardian.com/news/datablog/2014/sep/26/europeans-multiple-languages-uk-ireland
  125. Oller, D. K., Pearson, B. Z., & Cobo-Lewis, A. B. (2007). Profile effects in early bilingual language and literacy. Applied PsychoLinguistics, 28, 191–230.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Opitz, B., & Degner, J. (2012). Emotionality in a second language: It’s a matter of time. Neuropsychologia, 50, 1961–1967.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Oquendo, M. A. (1996). Psychiatric evaluation and psychotherapy in the patient’s second language. Psychiatric Services, 47, 614–618.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Palaniyappan, L., & Liddle, P. F. (2012). Aberrant cortical gyrification in schizophrenia: A surface-based morphometry study. Journal of Psychiatry and Neuroscience, 37, 399–406.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Paradis, J., Genesee, F., & Crago, M. B. (2011). Dual language development and disorders: A handbook on bilingualism and second language learning (2nd ed.). Baltimore, MD: Brookes.Google Scholar
  130. Paradis, M. (2004). A neurolinguistic theory of bilingualism. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Paradis, M. (2008). Bilingualism and neuropsychiatric disorders. Journal of Neurolinguistics, 21, 199–230.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Pease-Alvarez, L., & Vasquez, O. (1994). Language socialization in ethnic minority communities. In F. Genesee (Ed.), Educating second language children: The whole child, the whole community (pp. 82–102). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  133. Pennebaker, J. W., Francis, M. E., & Booth, R. J. (2001). Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count (LIWC): A computerized text analysis program (2nd ed.). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Earlbaum.Google Scholar
  134. Pennebaker, J. W., Mehl, M. R., & Niederhoffer, K. G. (2003). Psychological aspects of natural language use: Our words, our selves. Annual Review of Psychology, 54, 547–577.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Pérez Foster, R. M. (1996). Assessing the psychodynamic function of language in the bilingual patient. In R. M. Perez Foster, M. Moskowitz, & R. A. Javier (Eds.), Reading across boundaries of culture and class (pp. 246–263). Northvale, NJ: Jason Aronson.Google Scholar
  136. Piaget, J. (1980). Experiments in contradiction. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  137. Pincay, I. E. M., & Guarnaccia, P. J. (2007). “It’s like going through an earthquake”: Anthropological perspectives on depression among Latino immigrants. Journal of Immigrant and Minority Mental Health, 9, 17–28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Portes, A., & Hao, L. E. (1998). E pluribus unum: Bilingualism and loss of language in the second generation. Sociology of Education, 71, 269–294.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Postert, C., Dannlowski, U., Muller, J. M., & Konrad, C. (2012). Beyond the blues: Toward a cross-cultural phenomenology of depressed mood. Psychopathology, 45, 185–192.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Price, C. S., & Cuellar, I. (1981). Effects of language and related variables on the expression of psychopathology in Mexican-American psychiatric patients. Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences, 3, 145–160.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. Pyszcynski, T., & Greenberg, J. (1987). Self-regulatory perseveration and the depressive self-focusing style: A self-awareness theory of depression. Psychological Bulletin, 102, 122–138.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. Rait, G. (1999). Counting heads may mask cultural and social factors. British Medical Journal, 318, 302–305.PubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. Ramírez-Esparza, N., Gosling, S. D., Benet-Martínez, V., Potter, J. P., & Pennebaker, J. W. (2006). Do bilinguals have two personalities? A special case of cultural frame switching. Journal of Research in Personality, 40, 99–120.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. Ratner, N. B. (1997). Atypical language development. In J. B. Grleason (Ed.), The development of language (pp. 348–397). Needham Heights, MA: Allyn & Bacon.Google Scholar
  145. Reidy, T. J., Sorensen, J. R., & Davidson, M. (2016). Testing the predictive validity of the Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI) in relation to inmate misconduct and violence. Psychological Assessment, 28, 871–884.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. Rogler, L. H. (1993). Culture in psychiatric diagnosis: An issue of scientific accuracy. Psychiatry, 56, 324–327.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. Rude, S. S., Gortner, E., & Pennebaker, J. W. (2004). Language use of depressed and depression-vulnerable college students. Cognition and Emotion, 18, 1121–1133.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. Ryan, C. (2013). Language use in the United States: 2011. American community survey reports.. Retrieved from https://www.census.gov/prod/.../acs-22.pdf
  149. Sandoval, J., & Duran, R. P. (1998). Language. In E. Jonathan et al. (Eds.), Test interpretation and diversity: Achieving equity in assessment. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. Santiago-Rivera, A. L., & Altarriba, J. (2002). The role of language in therapy with the Spanish-English bilingual client. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 33, 30–38.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. Schoeman, R., Chiliza, B., Emsley, R., & Southwood, F. (2007). Bilingualism and psychosis: A case report. Schizophrenia Research, 103, 333–335.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. Schrauf, R. W. (2000). Bilingual autobiographical memory: Experimental studies and clinical cases. Culture and Psychology, 6, 387–417.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. Seung, H.-K., Siddiqi, S., & Elder, J. H. (2006). Intervention outcomes of a bilingual child with autism. Journal of Medical Speech–Language Pathology, 14, 53–63.Google Scholar
  154. Simsek, O. F., & Cerci, M. (2013). Relationship of the gap between experience and language with mental health in adolescence: The importance of emotion regulation. The Journal of Psychology: Interdisciplinary and Applied, 147, 293–309.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. Skodol, A. E., Oldham, J. M., Bender, D. S., Dyck, I. R., Stout, R. L., Morey, L. C., et al. (2005). Dimensional representations of DSM-IV personality disorders: Relationships to functional impairment. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 162, 1919–1925.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. Smit, M., Conradie, S., & Schoeman, R. (2011). A grammatical analysis of the spontaneous L2 English use of schizophrenic bilinguals compared to typical bilinguals. Southern African Linguistics and Applied Language Studies, 29, 505–513.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. Sommer, I. E. C., Diederen, K. M. J., Blom, J. D., Wilems, A., Kushan, L., Slotema, K., et al. (2008). Auditory verbal hallucinations predominantly activate the right inferior frontal area. Brain, 131, 3169–3177.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. Southwood, F., Schoeman, R., & Emsley, R. (2009). Bilingualism and psychosis: A linguistic analysis of a patient with differential symptom severity across languages. Southern African Linguistics and Applied Language Studies, 27, 163–171.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. Statistics Canada (2011). Linguistic characteristics of Canadians. Retrieved from http://www12.statcan.gc.ca/census-recensement/2011/as-sa/98-314-x/98-314-x2011001-eng.cfm
  160. Steiner, G. (1992). After Babel: Aspects of language and translation. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  161. Stirman, S. W., & Pennebaker, J. W. (2001). Word use in poetry of suicidal and non-suicidal poets. Psychosomatic Medicine, 63, 517–522.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. Sullivan, H. S. (1953). The interpersonal theory of psychiatry. New York, NY: Norton.Google Scholar
  163. Tabors, P. O. (1997). One child, two languages: A guide for preschool educators of children learning English as a second language. Baltimore, MD: Brookes.Google Scholar
  164. Tager-Flusberg, H. (1992). Autistic children’s talk about psychological states: Deficits in the early acquisition of a theory of mind. Child Development, 63, 161–172.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. Theron, J., Conradie, S., & Schoeman, R. (2011). Pragmatic assessment of schizophrenic bilinguals’ L1 and L2 use. Southern African Linguistics and Applied Languages Studies, 29, 515–531.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  166. Tomkins, S. S., & Tomkins, E. J. (1947). The Thematic Apperception Test: The theory and technique of interpretation. New York City, NY: Grune & Stratton.Google Scholar
  167. Toppelberg, C. O., & Collins, B. A. (2010). Language, culture, and adaptation in immigrant children. Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 19, 697–717p.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. Toppelberg, C. O., Munir, K., & Nieto-Castañón, A. (2006). Spanish-English bilingual children with psychopathology: Language deficits and academic language proficiency. Child and Adolescent Mental Health, 11, 156–163.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  169. Toppelberg, C. O., Nieto-Castañón, A., & Hauser, S. T. (2006). Bilingual children: Cross-sectional relations of psychiatric syndrome severity and dual language proficiency. Harvard Review of Psychiatry, 14, 16–29.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  170. Toppelberg, C. O., Snow, C. E., & Tager-Flusberg, H. (1999). Severe developmental disorders and bilingualism: Clinical perspectives. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 38, 1197–1199.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. Tse, L. (2001). Resisting and reversing language shift: Heritage-language resilience among U.S. native biliterates. Harvard Educational Review, 71, 676–709.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  172. Velásquez, R. J., Chavira, D. A., Karle, H. R., Callahan, W. J., Garcia, J. A., & Castellanos, J. (1997). Assessing bilingual and monolingual Latino students with translations of the MMPI-2: Initial data. Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology, 6, 65–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. Velásquez, R. J., Maness, P. J., & Anderson, U. (2002). Culturally competent assessment of Latino clients: The MMPI-2. In J. N. Butcher (Ed.), Clinical personality assessment (2nd ed., pp. 154–170). New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  174. Velásquez, R. J., Garrido, M., Castellanos, J., & Burton, M. P. (2004). Culturally competent assessment of Chicana/os with the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2. In R. J. Velasquez, L. M. Arellano, & B. McNeill (Eds.), The handbook of Chicano psychology (pp. 153–174). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
  175. Vygotsky, L. S. (1962). Thought and language. Cambridge, MA: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  176. Wang, J. H., Morales, O., & Hsu, L. K. G. (1998). Auditory hallucinations in bilingual immigrants. The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 186, 501–503.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  177. Westernmeyer, J., & Janca, A. (1997). Language, culture, and psychopathology: Conceptual and methodological issues. Transcultural Psychiatry, 34, 291–311.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  178. Whitworth, R. H. (1988). Anglo- and Mexican-American performance on the MMPI administered in Spanish or English. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 44, 891–897.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  179. Widiger, T. A., & Simonsen, E. (2005). Alternative dimensional models of personality disorder: Finding a common ground. Journal of Personality Disorders, 19, 110–130.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  180. Williams, R., & Hunt, K. (1997). Psychological distress among British South Asians: The contribution of stressful situations and subcultural differences in the West of Scotland. Psychological Medicine, 27, 1171–1181.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  181. Yang, J., Bagby, R. M., Costa, P. T., Ryder, A. G., & Herbst, J. H. (2002). Assessing the DSM-IV structure of personality disorder with a sample of Chinese psychiatric patients. Journal of Personality Disorders, 16, 317–331.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  182. Yang, J., McCrae, R. R., Costa, P. T., Dai, X., Yao, S., Cai, T., et al. (1999). Cross-cultural personality assessment in psychiatric populations: The NEO-PI-R in the People’s Republic of China. Psychological Assessment, 11, 359–368.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  183. Yang, J., McCrae, R. R., Costa, P. T., Yao, S., Dai, X., Cai, T., et al. (2000). The cross-cultural generalizability of Axis-II constructs: An evaluation of two personality disorder assessment instruments in the People’s Republic of China. Journal of Personality Disorders, 14, 249–263.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  184. Yanping, Z., Leyi, X., & Qijie, S. (1986). Styles of verbal expression of emotional and physical experiences: A study of depressed patients and normal controls in China. Culture, Medicine, and Psychiatry, 10, 231–243.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  185. Yeates, K. O., Schultz, L. H., & Selman, R. L. (1991). The developmental interpersonal negotiation strategies in thought and action: A social-cognitive link to behavioural adjustment and social status. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 37, 369–405.Google Scholar
  186. Zadeh, Z. Y., Im-Bolter, N., & Cohen, N. J. (2007). Social cognition and externalizing psychopathology: An investigation of the mediating role of language. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 35, 141–152.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Texas A&M International UniversityLaredoUSA

Personalised recommendations