Neuroendocrine Prostate Cancer

Part of the Molecular Pathology Library book series (MPLB)


Neuroendocrine prostate cancer (NEPC) is an androgen receptor (AR)-negative variant that most commonly arises from treated adenocarcinoma of the prostate. NEPC does not respond to AR-directed therapy and has only transient response to chemotherapy. It is estimated that up to 30% of late-stage prostate cancers harbor a predominance of neuroendocrine differentiation. However, due to a general lack of biopsy diagnoses for advanced disease, this may underrepresent the frequency of NEPC. The prognosis is poor due to late recognition, heterogeneous clinical features, and lack of effective therapy. Chemotherapy used for other small cell neuroendocrine cancers is the mainstay of treatment; however, more targeted approaches are being developed based on an emerging understanding of this aggressive form of prostate cancer. This chapter provides an in-depth overview of most recent genomic alterations of this lethal subtype of the disease.


Abiraterone Androgen receptor Aurora kinase A Castrate resistant Enzalutamide N-myc 



Androgen receptor


Castration-resistant prostate cancer


Neuroendocrine prostate cancer


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Pathology and Laboratory MedicineWeill Cornell Medical CollegeNew YorkUSA
  2. 2.Department of Pathology and Laboratory MedicineNew York-Presbyterian Hospital, Weill Cornell Medical CollegeNew YorkUSA
  3. 3.Englander Institute for Precision MedicineNew York-Presbyterian Hospital, Weill Cornell Medical CollegeNew YorkUSA

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