Tumor Microenvironment: Prospects for Diagnosis and Prognosis of Prostate Cancer Based on Changes in Tumor-Adjacent Stroma

  • Zhenyu Jia
  • Chung Lee
  • Xiaolin Zi
  • Michael McClelland
  • Dan Mercola
Part of the Molecular Pathology Library book series (MPLB)


This chapter summarizes the role of stromal cells in the development and progression of prostate cancer and how alterations in gene expression in the tumor-adjacent stroma may be useful for diagnosis and prognosis of prostate cancer. During embryogenesis, prostate stromal cells play a major role in prostate morphogenesis. Prostate stromal cells also play a major role in prostate carcinogenesis and prostate cancer progression. Changes in the stroma of tumor-bearing prostate glands have been used to detect the presence of tumor nearby. Furthermore, since stromal cells exhibit fewer genetic mutations than those in the tumor, gene expression profiles of the tumor-adjacent stromal cells may be a source of reliable biomarkers to predict outcomes during the course of clinical management of patients. The clinical and biological significance of changes in stroma is highlighted.


Prostate cancer Microenvironment Multigene profile Classifier Diagnosis Prognosis Clinical test Tumor-adjacent stroma Presence of tumor Stroma-based tests 



This work was supported by the NCI Early Detection Research Network (EDRN) Consortium grant U01 CA152738, the NCI Strategic Partner for the Evaluation of Cancer Signatures (SPECS) consortium U01 CA114810, and by bridging funds from the UCI Chao Family Comprehensive Cancer Center Support Grant NCI CA P3062203. This work was also supported in part by Department of Defense Congressionally Directed Medical Research Programs grants W81XWH-08–1-0720, W81XWH-11–1-0312, and W81XWH-14-PCRP-HDRA and by support from the California Women’s Auxiliary to the Veterans of Foreign Wars.


Michael McClelland and Dan Mercola are the founders of a company, Proveri, Inc., which has an interest in biomarkers for prostate cancer, including diagnosis and prognosis. The participation of MM and DAM in this work and supporting grants has been disclosed to and approved by the UCI Conflict of Interest Committee.


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Zhenyu Jia
    • 1
    • 2
  • Chung Lee
    • 1
    • 2
  • Xiaolin Zi
    • 3
  • Michael McClelland
    • 4
  • Dan Mercola
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Botany and Plant SciencesUniversity of CaliforaniaRiversideUSA
  2. 2.Department of Pathology and Laboratory MedicineUniversity of CaliforniaIrvineUSA
  3. 3.Department of UrologyUniversity of Calinfornia IrvineOrangeUSA
  4. 4.Department of Microbiology and Molecular GeneticsUniversity of California IrvineIrvineUSA

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