Similarities: Nearest-Neighbor Classifiers
Two plants that look very much alike probably represent the same species; likewise, it is quite common that patients complaining of similar symptoms suffer from the same disease. In short, similar objects often belong to the same class—an observation that forms the basis of a popular approach to classification: when asked to determine the class of object x, find the training example most similar to it. Then label x with this example’s class.
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