A Novel Visible Watermarking Scheme Based on Distance Transform

  • Guo-Jian Chou
  • Ran-Zan WangEmail author
  • Yeuan-Keun Lee
  • Ching Yu Yang
Conference paper
Part of the Smart Innovation, Systems and Technologies book series (SIST, volume 81)


Visible watermarking is a common intellectual property protection mechanism for digital images. It is fulfilled by translucently overlaying a visual logo and/or a segment of text onto an image to declare the ownership of the image and thus deterring unauthorized usage to the image. This paper presents a novel visible watermarking technique by considering HVS characteristics and applying a distance transform function to evaluate appropriate stamping strength for individual watermark pixels. It exhibits lucid watermark pattern under moderate modification to the host image. Compare to uniform-contrast watermarks generated using conventional HVS based visible watermark schemes, the proposed method achieves better balance to the visual quality between the watermark and the image content beneath it.


Digital watermarking Visible watermark Distance transform Human Visual System 


  1. 1.
    Yeung, M.M., Mintzer, F.C., Braudaway, G.W., Rao, A.R.: Digital watermarking for high-quality imaging. In: Proceedings of IEEE First Workshop on Multimedia Signal Processing, pp. 357–362 (1997)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Kankanhalli, M.S., Rajmohan, Ramakrishnan, K.R.: Adaptive visible watermarking of images. In: IEEE International Conference on Multimedia Computing and Systems, vol. 1, pp. 568–573 (1999)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Huang, B.B., Tang, S.X.: A contrast-sensitive visible watermarking scheme. IEEE Multimed. 13(2), 60–66 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Tsai, M.J.: A visible watermarking algorithm based on the content and contrast aware (COCOA) technique. J. Vis. Commun. Image Represent. 20(5), 323–338 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Zeng, W., Wu, Y.: A visible watermarking scheme in spatial domain using HVS model. Inf. Technol. J. 9(8), 1622–1628 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Agarwal, H., Sen, D., Raman, B., Kankanhalli, M.: Visible watermarking based on importance and just noticeable distortion of image regions. Multimed. Tools Appl. 25, 7605–7629 (2015)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Fabbri, R., et al.: 2D euclidean distance transform algorithms: a comparative survey. ACM Comput. Surv. 40(1), Article 2, February 2008Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Mannos, J.L., Sakrison, D.J.: The effects of a visual fidelity criterion on the encoding of images. IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory IT-20(4), 525–536 (1974)CrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Daly, S.: A visual model for optimizing the design of image processing algorithms. Proceedings IEEE International Conference on Image Processing, vol. II, pp. 16–20 (1994)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Eckert, M.P., Bradley, A.P.: Perceptual quality metrics applied to still image compression. Sig. Process. 70(3), 177–200 (1998)CrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    De Vleeschouwer, C., Delaigle, J.F., Maco, B.: Invisibility and application functionalities in perceptual watermarking - An overview. Proc. IEEE 90(1), 64–77 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Singh, P., Chadha, R.S.: A survey of digital watermarking techniques, applications and attacks. Int. J. Eng. Innov. Technol. (IJEIT) 2(9), 165–175 (2013)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Guo-Jian Chou
    • 1
  • Ran-Zan Wang
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Yeuan-Keun Lee
    • 3
  • Ching Yu Yang
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of Information CommunicationYuan Ze UniversityTaoyuanTaiwan
  2. 2.Department of Computer Science and EngineeringYuan Ze UniversityTaoyuanTaiwan
  3. 3.Department of CSIEMing Chuan UniversityTaipeiTaiwan
  4. 4.Department of CSIENational Penghu University of Science and TechnologyMagongTaiwan

Personalised recommendations