Introduction

  • Wan-Ning Bao
Chapter
Part of the Palgrave Advances in Criminology and Criminal Justice in Asia book series (PACCJA)

Abstract

This chapter serves as an introduction to the book. It describes the major achievements since China’s economic reform in the 1980s, followed by detailed accounts of juvenile delinquency during China’s socio-economic transition. The chapter discusses how a rapidly changing Chinese society functions as a breeding ground for many social problems that affect youths and causes delinquency. Using ecological systems theory and general strain theory (GST) as theoretical frameworks, the book examines strain factors in Chinese urban adolescents’ macro-social environment and micro-life settings that interplay to affect youths’ psychological well-being, coping resources to strain, and delinquency. The chapter also highlights the two research projects which have laid the foundation for this book.

Keywords

Urban adolescents Juvenile delinquency Theoretical frameworks Research projects 

Bibliography

  1. Agnew, R. (1992). Foundation for a general strain theory of crime and delinquency. Criminology, 30, 47–87.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Agnew, R. (2006). Pressured into crime: An overview of general strain theory. Los Angeles: Roxbury Publishing Company.Google Scholar
  3. Agnew, R. (2015). Using general strain theory to explain crime in Asian societies. Asian Journal of Criminology, 10, 131–147.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Agnew, R., & Brezina, T. (2015). Juvenile delinquency: Causes and control. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  5. Bao, W. N. (2010). Social change, life strains, and delinquency among Chinese youth groups: Interview of urban students, migrant children, and deviant youth, China. Indianapolis: Indiana University- Purdue University Indianapolis.Google Scholar
  6. Bao, W. N., & Haas, A. (2009). Social change, life strain, and delinquency among Chinese urban adolescents. Sociological Focus, 42, 285–305.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bao, W. N., Haas, A., & Pi, Y. (2002). A strain theory assessment of juvenile delinquency in the People’s Republic of China: A survey in Shijiazhuang and Guangzhou, China. Indianapolis: Indiana University Purdue University Indianapolis.Google Scholar
  8. Bao, W. N., Haas, A., & Pi, Y. (2004a). Life strain, negative emotions, and delinquency: An empirical test of general strain theory in the People’s Republic of China. International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology, 48, 281–297.Google Scholar
  9. Bao, W. N., Haas, A., & Pi, Y. (2004b). Negative life events and delinquency: An examination of mediating and conditioning effects in GST in China. Paper presented at the annual meeting of American Society of Criminology, Nashville.Google Scholar
  10. Bao, W. N., Haas, A., & Pi, Y. (2007). Life strain, coping, and delinquency in the People’s Republic of China: An empirical test of general strain theory from a matching perspective in social support. International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology, 51, 9–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bao, W. N., Haas, A., Chen, X., & Pi, Y. (2014a). Repeated strains, social control, social learning, and delinquency: Testing an integrated model of general strain theory in China. Youth and Society, 46, 402–424.Google Scholar
  12. Bao, W. N., Haas, A., & Tao, L. (2017). Impact of Chinese parenting on adolescents’ social bonding, affiliation with delinquent peers and delinquent behavior. Asian Journal of Criminology, 12(2), 81–105.Google Scholar
  13. Bao, W. N., Haas, A., & Xie, Y. (2016). Life strain, social Control, social Learning and delinquency: The effects of gender, age, and family SES among Chinese adolescents. International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology, 60(12), 1446–1469.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Beck, U. (1992). Risk society: Towards a new modernity. London: SAGE.Google Scholar
  15. Brezina, T. (1996). Adapting to strain: An examination of delinquent coping responses. Criminology, 34, 39–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Bronfenbrenner, U. (1979). The ecology of human development: Experiments by nature and design. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  17. Bronfenbrenner, U. (1994). Ecological models of human development. In International encyclopedia of education (2nd ed., pp. 1643–1647). Oxford: Elsevier.Google Scholar
  18. Cao, L. (2007). Returning to normality: Anomie and crime in China. International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology, 51(1), 40–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Chambliss, W. J., & Nagasawa, R. H. (1969). On the validity of official statistics: A comparative study of white, black, and Japanese high-school boys. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 6, 71–77.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Chen, X., Dong, Q., & Zhou, H. (1997). Authoritative and authoritarian parenting practices and social and school performance in Chinese children. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 21(4), 855–873.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Cheung, N. W. T., & Cheung, Y. W. (2010). Strain, self-control, and gender differences in delinquency among Chinese adolescents: Extending general strain theory. Sociological Perspectives, 53(3), 321–345.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Cheung, C. K., Ngai, N. P., & Ngai, S. S. Y. (2007). Family strain and adolescent delinquency in two Chinese cities, Guangzhou and Hong Kong. Journal of Children and Family Studies, 16, 626–641.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. China Daily. (2007). Youth crime in China explodes as social values decline: Report. Beijing.Google Scholar
  24. Cieslik, M., & Pollock, G. (2002). Young people in risk society: The restructuring of youth identities and transitions in late modernity. Burlington: Ashgate.Google Scholar
  25. Cloward, R., & Ohlin, L. (1960). Delinquency and opportunity. Glencoe: Free Press.Google Scholar
  26. Cohen, A. (1955). Delinquent boys. New York: Free Press.Google Scholar
  27. Curran, D. J. (1998). Economic reform, the floating population, and crime. Journal of Contemporary Criminal Justice, 14, 262–280.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Curran, D. J., & Cook, S. (1993). Growing fears, rising crime: Juveniles and China’s justice system. Crime and Delinquency, 39(3), 296–315.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Deng, S., & Roosa, M. W. (2007). Family influences on adolescent delinquent behavior: Applying the social development model to a Chinese sample. American Journal of community Psychology, 40, 333–344.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Deng, X., & Cordilia, A. (1999). To get rich is glorious: Rising expectations, declining control, and escalating Crime in contemporary China. International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology, 43(2), 211–229.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Deng, Y., & Han, J. (2014). An analysis of the current situation of female juvenile delinquency and the countermeasures. Journal of Jiangxi Youth Vocational College, 24(5), 26–29. (in Chinese).Google Scholar
  32. Epstein, I. (2003). Juvenile delinquency and reformatory education in China: A retrospective. In E. R. Beauchamp (Ed.), Comparative education reader (pp. 163–182). New York: RoutledgeFalmer.Google Scholar
  33. Friday, P. C., Ren, X., Weitekamp, E., Kerner, H., & Taylor, T. (2005). A Chinese birth cohort: Theoretical implications. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 42(2), 123–146.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Gao, S. (1986). Social causes of juvenile delinquency. Chinese Education, 19(2), 8–26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Gao, Y., Wong, D. S. W., & Yu, Y. (2016). Maltreatment and delinquency in China: Examining and extending the intervening process of general strain theory. International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology, 60(1), 38–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Garcia, B. C. (2004). Rural-urban migration in China: Temporary migrants in search of permanent settlement. Portal, 1(2), 1–26.Google Scholar
  37. Ghubash, E., & Bebbington, P. (1994). The Dubai community psychiatric survey: Acculturation and the prevalence of psychiatric disorder. Psychological Medicine, 24, 121–131.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Giddens, A. (1991). Modernity and self-identity. Cambridge: Policy Press.Google Scholar
  39. Grant, J., & Hutton, A. (2011). Supporting adolescents in a rapidly urbanizing China. Contemporary Nurse, 40(1), 5–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Guan, Y. (2006). Juvenile delinquency in China. In J. Xi, Y. Sun, & J. J. Xiao (Eds.), Chinese youth in transition (pp. 241–256). Burlington: Ashgate Publishing Company.Google Scholar
  41. Huang, Y. L. (2001). Characteristics, causes, and preventive measures of juvenile delinquency in contemporary China. Journal of Youth Study, 4, 22–26. (in Chinese).Google Scholar
  42. Huang, H., Hong, J. S., & Espelage, L. D. (2013). Understanding factors associated with bullying and peer victimization in Chinese schools within ecological contexts. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 22, 881–892.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Ibrahim, A., & Al-Nafie, A. (1991). Perception and concern about sociocultural change and psychopathology in Saudi Arabia. Journal of Social Psychology, 13, 179–186.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Jiang, S., Wang, J., & Lambert, E. (2010). Correlates of informal social control in Guangzhou, China neighborhoods. Journal of Criminal Justice, 38(4), 460–469.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Kaplan, C. P., & Munoz, M. (1997). Working with poor ethnic minority adolescents and their families: An ecosystemic approach. In P. Elaine, Multicultural perspectives in working with families (61–75). Congress. New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  46. Liao, M., Lee, A. S., Robert-Lewis, A. C., Hong, J. S., & Jiao, K. (2011). Child maltreatment in China: An ecological review of the literature. Children and Youth Services Review, 33, 1709–1719.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Liu, J. (2004a). Social transition and crime in China: An economic motivation thesis. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Criminology, 37, 122–138.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Liu, J. (2005). Crime patterns during the market transition in China. British Journal of Criminology, 45(5), 613–633.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Liu, H. (2015a). A review of research on juvenile delinquency in 2014. Juvenile Delinquency and Judicial Research, 1, 78–83. (in Chinese).Google Scholar
  50. Liu, Y. (2015b). Returning to social standard: Improving prevention of juvenile delinquency in family and socialization. Journal of Shandong Youth University of Political Science, 31, 104–108. (in Chinese).Google Scholar
  51. Liu, R. X. (2016). Life events and delinquency: An assessment of event-based stressors and gender differences among adolescents in mainland China. Sociological Inquiry, 86(3), 400–426.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Liu, R. X., & Lin, W. (2007). Delinquency among Chinese adolescents: Modeling sources of frustration and gender differences. Deviant Behavior, 28, 409–432.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Liu, Y. J., & Qin, G. W. (2004). The causes of juvenile delinquency in China: Understanding from the perspective of control theory. Theoretical Research, 2, 4–9. (in Chinese).Google Scholar
  54. Merton, R. (1938). Social structure and anomie. American Sociological Review, 3, 672–682.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Morash, M., & Moon, B. (2007). Gender differences in the effects of strain on the delinquency of South Korean youth. Youth & Society, 38(3), 300–321.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Pyle, K. B. (1969). The new generation in Meiji Japan. Stanford: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
  57. Pyrooz, D. C., & Decker, S. H. (2013). Delinquent behavior, violence, and gang involvement in China. Journal of Quantitative Criminology, 29(2), 251–272.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Rojek, D. G. (1996). Changing directions of Chinese social control. In C. B. Fields & R. H. Moore Jr. (Eds.), Comparative criminal justice: Traditional and nontraditional systems of law and control (pp. 234–249). Prospect Heights: Waveland Press.Google Scholar
  59. Shen, J. J. (2003). The lost primary and middle school students and juvenile delinquency. Journal of Heilongjiang Administration Institute of Politics and Law, 2, 78–79. (in Chinese).Google Scholar
  60. Sun, Z. L. (2000). Moral reconstruction and prevention of juvenile delinquency in China. Journal of Shaanxi Youth Administrative College, 13(1), 7–9. (in Chinese).Google Scholar
  61. Toby, J. (1967). Affluence and adolescent Crime. Task force report: Juvenile delinquency and youth crime. The President’s Commission on Law Enforcement and Administration of Justice, Washington, DC: Government Printing Office.Google Scholar
  62. Wang, S. A., & Han, B. (2014). Juvenile delinquency in the 21st century China: The situation, characteristics, trends, and control measures. Juvenile Delinquency Prevention Research, 5, 15–22.Google Scholar
  63. Wang, G. T., Qiao, H., Hong, S., & Zhang, J. (2002). Adolescent social bond, self-control, and deviant behavior in China. International Journal of Contemporary Sociology, 39(1), 53–68.Google Scholar
  64. Wong, D. (2001). Changes in juvenile justice in China. Youth and Society, 32(4), 492–509.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. World Youth Report. (2003). The global situation of young people. Department of Economic and Social Affairs, United Nations.Google Scholar
  66. Xi, J. (2006). Introduction to Chinese Youth. In J. Xi, Y. Sun, & J. J. Xiao (Eds.), Chinese youth in transition (pp. 80–96). Burlington: Ashgate Publishing Company.Google Scholar
  67. Xia, B. P., Li, M. S., Zhou, M. X., Liu, Z. B., & Huang, X. J. (2010). Investigation and countermeasure research on juvenile delinquency in Shanghai. Journal of Shanghai Ocean University, 19(3), 421–426. (in Chinese).Google Scholar
  68. Xia, Y. R., Wang, C., Li, W., Wilson, S., Bush, K. R., & Peterson, G. (2015). Chinese parenting behaviors, adolescent school adjustment, and problem behavior. Marriage & Family Review, 51, 489–515.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Xiang, G. (1999). Delinquency and its prevention in China. International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology, 43(1), 61–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Xiao, J. M. (1988). Economic Development and Crime Problem. Juvenile Delinquency Studies, 5, 15–18. (in Chinese).Google Scholar
  71. Xiu, S. T. (2011). A study on causes of juvenile delinquency and educational countermeasures. Journal of ABA Teachers College, 28(2), 123–125. (in Chinese).Google Scholar
  72. Xu, Y., Farver, J. A. M., Schwartz, D., & Chang, L. (2004). Social networks and aggressive behavior in Chinese children. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 28, 401–411.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Xu, Y., Farver, J. A. M., Chang, L., Zhang, Z., & Yu, L. (2007). Moving away or fitting in: Understanding shyness in Chinese children. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 53(4), 527–556.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Xue, J. (1991). Social changes and juvenile delinquency in China. Contemporary Youth Studies, 4, 1–3. (in Chinese).Google Scholar
  75. Yan, J. (2014). Reflections on prevention of juvenile delinquency in China. Legality Vision, 9, 308–310. (in Chinese).Google Scholar
  76. Zhang, L. (1994). Peer rejection as a possible consequence of official reaction to delinquency in Chinese society. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 21(4), 387–402.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Zhang, L. (2003). Official offense status and self-esteem among Chinese youths. Journal of Criminal Justice, 31(1), 99–106.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Zhang, L., & Messner, S. F. (1994). The severity of official punishment for delinquency and change of interpersonal relations in Chinese society. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 31(4), 416–433.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Zhang, L., & Messner, S. F. (1995). Family deviance and delinquency in China. Criminology, 33(3), 359–387.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Zhang, L., & Messner, S. F. (1996). School attachment and official delinquency status in the People’s Republic of China. Sociological Forum, 11(2), 285–303.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Zhang, L., & Messner, S. F. (1999). Bonds to the work unit and official offense status in urban China. International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology, 43(3), 9–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Zhang, L., Messner, S. F., & Liu, J. (2007). A Multilevel analysis of the risk of household burglary in the city of Tianjin, China. British Journal of Criminology, 47(6), 918–937.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Zhao, S. L. (2008). Anomie theory and crime in a transitional China. International Criminal Justice Review, 18(2), 137157.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Wan-Ning Bao
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of SociologyIndiana University-Purdue University IndianapolisIndianapolisUSA

Personalised recommendations