Review of Liquefaction Around Marine and Pile-Supported Wharf Structures

  • Pınar Sezin Öztürk Kardoğan
  • Subhamoy Bhattacharya
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Civil Engineering book series (LNCE, volume 6)


Earthquake recossaince survey showed that liquefaction of soil caused severe damage to pile-supported structures, for example bridges and marine-wharf structures. Marine wharf structures provide logistic support to shipping, distribution, and other facilities for the transport of cargos via water. Thus, these structures must be less affected from seismic related hazards such as liquefaction, lateral spreading and settlement. Literature review showed that damage to pile supported wharfs often occured due to lateral movement of liquefiable soil which caused horizontal displacement of structures and also settlement. As a result, pile supported marine structures were badly damaged. In this study, a review of typical damages to marine and pile-supported wharf structures observed in the past earthquake is presented Based on the observed damages and current understanding of pile failure, criteria for design of pile-supported marine structures is presented.


Liquefaction Pile-supported Wharf structures Marine structures 


  1. 1.
    Mostafa YE (2012) Design considerations for pile groups supporting marine structures with respect to scour. Sci Res Eng 4:833–842Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Borg RC (2007) Seismic performance, analysis and design of wharf structures: a comparison of worldwide typologies. European School for Advanced Studies in Reduction of Seismic Risk Rose School, MayGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Panagiotidou AI (2013) Seismic response of wharf structures supported in liquefiable soil. Master of Science in Civil and Environmental Engineering at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, JuneGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Sumer BM (2014) Review of liquefaction around marine, world scientific. Hackensack, NJ, 472 pp. ISBN 978-981-4329-31-6Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Boulanger R, Iai S, Ansal A, Cetin KO, Idriss IM, Sunman B, Sunman K (2000) Performance of waterfront structures. In: Youd TL, Bardet J-P, Bray JD (eds) 1999 Kocaeli, Turkey, earthquake reconnaissance Rep., Chap. 13, supplement a to earthquake spectra, Vol 16, pp 295–310Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Takahashi A, Takmura J (2005) Liquefaction-induced large displacement of pile-supported wharf. Soil Dyn Earthquake Eng 811–825Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Groot MD, Bolton MD, Foray P, Meijers P, Palmer AC, Sandven R, Sawicki A, Teh TC (2006) Physics of liquefaction phenomena around marine structures. J Waterway, Port, Coast Ocean EngGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Sumer BM, Ansal A, Cetin KÖ, Damgaard J, Gunbak AR, Hansen NO, Sawicki A, Synolakis CE, Yalciner AC, Yuksel Y, Zen K (2007) Earthquake-induced liquefaction around marine structures. J Waterway Port Coast Ocean Eng 55–82Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Hancox GT, Archibald GC, Cousins WJ, Perrin ND, Misra S (2013) Reconnaissance report on liquefaction effects and landslides caused by the ML 6.5 Cook Strait Earthquake of 21 July 2013. New Zealand, GNS Science Report, 42.20 ppGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Eberhard MO, Baldridge S, Marshall J, Mooney W, Rix GJ (2010) The MW 7.0 Haiti Earthquake of January 12, 2010: USGS/EERI Advance Reconnaissance Team Report, U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey, Open-File Report-1048Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Disfani OR, Zarch MHHA, Alikhani A (2015) Review of different repairing methods on sheet pile wharves. J Appl Environ Biol Sci 5(8S):363–367Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Werner D, Dickenson SE, Taylor CE (1997) Seismic risk reduction at ports: case studies and acceptable risk evaluation. J Waterway, Port, Coast Ocean Eng 123(6):337–346CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Hammoto T, Nagano T, Yamao T (2005) Analytical study of the sheet pile Qua damaged by 2005 Fukuoka Earthquake. Accessed on 10 Sept 2016
  14. 14.
    Suganoa T, Nozua A, Kohamaa E, Shimosakoa K, Kikuchib Y (2014) Damage to coastal structures. Jpn Geotechn Soc Soils Found 54:883–901CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Dickenson S, Yang S, Schwarm D, Rees M (2013) Use of strong motion records to validate dynamic soil-foundation-structure interaction models for pile supported wharves. In: California Strong Motion Instrumentation Program, Seminar ProceedingsGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Tsuchida H, de La Fuente RH, Noda S, Valenzuela MG (1986) Damage to port facilities in Port of Valparaiso and Port of San Antonio by the March 3, 1985 earthquake in middle of Chile, 4as Jordanadas Cileanas de Sismologia e Intenieria Antisismica & International Seminar ohan the Chilean March 3, 1985 earthquakeGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Dash SD, Govindaraju L, Bhattacharya S (2009) A case study of damages of the Kandla Port and Customs Office tower supported on a mat–pile foundation in liquefied soils under the 2001 Bhuj earthquake. Soil Dyn Earthquake Eng 29:333–346CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Sumer BM, Fredsøe J (1998) Wave scour around group of vertical piles. J Waterway, Port, Coast Ocean Eng 124(5):248–255CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Wall H, Wadsö L (2013) Corrosion rate measurements in steel sheet pile walls in a marine environment. Marine Struct 33:21–32CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Gerwick BC (2007) Construction of marine and offshore structures, Third Edition, Chapter 2. CRC Press, Boca RatonGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Bhattacharya S, Madabhushi G, Bolton DM (2004) An alternative mechanism of pile failure in liquefiable deposits during earthquakes. Géotechnique 54(3):203–213CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Sarkar R, Bhattacharya S, Maheshwari BK (2014) Seismic requalification of pile foundations in liquefiable soils. Indian Geotech J. Scholar
  23. 23.
    McCullough NJ, Schlechter SM, Dickenson SE (2001) Centrifuge modeling of pile-supported wharves for seismic hazards. In: Fourth international conference on recent advances in geotechnical earthquake engineering and soil dynamics and symposium n honor of Professor W.D. Liam Finn, San Diego, California, 26–31 March 2001Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Bhattacharya S (2003) Pile instability during earthquake liquefaction. Ph.D. thesis, University of Cambridge (U.K). SeptGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Dash SR, Bhattacharya S (2007) Criteria for design of piled foundations in seismically liquefiable deposits. In: 4th international conference on earthquake geotechnical engineering, Paper No. 1724, 25–28 June 2007Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Davisson MT, Robinson KE (1965) Bending and Buckling of partially embedded piles. In: Proceedings of the 6th international conference in soil mechanics and foundation engineering, vol 2, pp 243–246Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Pınar Sezin Öztürk Kardoğan
    • 1
  • Subhamoy Bhattacharya
    • 2
  1. 1.Faculty Civil Engineering DepartmentGazi University TechnologyAnkaraTurkey
  2. 2.University of SurreyGuildfordUK

Personalised recommendations