Behavior of Dams Under Earthquake Loading-Case of Lower San Fernando Dam

  • Pinar Sezin Ozturk Kardogan
  • Murat Pinarlik
  • Nihat Sinan Isık
  • Seyhan Firat
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Civil Engineering book series (LNCE, volume 6)

Abstract

Soil liquefaction is seen where the water table is high and soil is cohesionless. Especially, it occurs when drainage is not possible or limited. Consequently effective stress decreases as result of increasing pore pressure during shearing. The significant majority of damage of buildings, roads, bridges and dams in earthquakes are due to soil liquefaction. Recently, the importance of soil behavior during the earthquakes has begun to be discussed. In particular, soil liquefaction can cause serious damages to earth—rockfill dams constructed in earthquake prone areas. In 1994-USA, 105 dams were affected within a 75 km radius from center of the Northridge earthquake of 6.7 magnitude. Some of these dams are earthfill and others are rockfill and not all of these dams were in danger of collapse. However, settlement cracks and/or slope movements have been observed. Others did not affected. Besides, many of these dams experienced the San Fernando Earthquake which has a magnitude of 6.5 occurred in the same area. In 1918, the Lower San Fernando Dam having a height of 42 m which was built using “hydraulic fill” technique was heavily damaged. In this study, Lower San Fernando Dam and earthquake loading is modelled using a finite difference program FLAC which contains Finn liquefaction model. At the end of the analysis, damage to the dam section, plastic shear deformations, distribution of pore pressure and deformations are compared with the real case.

Keywords

Liquefaction San Fernando Dam Earthquake Dam failure 

References

  1. 1.
    Ozkan MY (1998) A review of considerations on seismic safety of embankments and earth and rock-fill dams. Soil Dyn Earthq Eng 17:439–458CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Veesaert CJ (2007) Inspection of embankment dams, national dam safety program technical seminar session x. Bureau of Reclamation, Feb 2007Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Seed HB, Arango I, Chan CK (1976) Evaluation of soil liquefaction potential for level ground during earthquakes. A summary reportGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Mubnmthan B, Schofield AN (2000) Liquefaction and dam failures. In: ASC conference GeoDenverGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Singh R, Roy D, Jain SK (2005) Investigation of liquefaction failure in earthen dams during Bhuj Earthquake. In: Proceedings, special session on seismic aspects of dam design, 5th international R&D conference, Bangalore, India, 15 Feb. Central Board of Irrigation and Power, New Delhi, pp 40–48Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Singh R, Roy D, Jain SK (2005) Analysis of earth dams affected by the 2001 Bhuj earthquake. Eng GeolGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
  8. 8.
    Byrne MP, Seid-Karbasi M (2003) Seismic stability of impoundments. In: 17th annual symposium, VGSGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Okusa S, Anma S (1980) Slope failures and tailings dam damage in the 1978 Izu-Ohshima-Kinkai Earthquake. J Eng Geol 16:195–224CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Castro G, Seed BR, Keller TO, Seed HB (1992) Steady-state strength analysis of Lower San Fernando Dam slide. J Geotech Eng 118(3)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Seed HB, Seed RB, Harder LF, Jong H (1989) Re-evaluation of the Lower San Fernando Dam report 2 examination of the post-earthquake slide of February 9, 1971. Department of the Army US Army Corps of Engineers, Washington, DC 20314-1000Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Seed B (1979) Considerations in the earthquake-resistant design of earth and rockfill dams. Géotechnique 29(3):215–263CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    GEO-SLOPE International Ltd, Calgary, Alberta, Canada. https://www.geo-slope.com,QUAKE/WExampleFile:LowerSanFernandoDam.doc(pdf)
  14. 14.
  15. 15.
    Fast Lagrangian analysis of continua (FLAC2D), Version 4 (2002) Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Pinar Sezin Ozturk Kardogan
    • 1
  • Murat Pinarlik
    • 1
  • Nihat Sinan Isık
    • 1
  • Seyhan Firat
    • 1
  1. 1.Faculty of Technology, Department of Civil EngineeringGazi UniversityAnkaraTurkey

Personalised recommendations