Life Cycle Cost Analysis for Electrical and Solar Water Heater from a Sustainable Perspective

  • HebatAlla Taha
  • Halim Boussabaine
  • Abid Abu-Tair
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Civil Engineering book series (LNCE, volume 6)


Global warming jeopardy increases day by day and being green at our era becomes a demand to protect our planet. This paper describes the financial and sustainable impact of electrical and solar water heater from a client point of view on the long-term in residential buildings in Al Ain, UAE. Costs play a vital role in selecting materials by the client. Therefore, current research aims to compare between two types of electrical and solar water heater. This comparison aims to expand the client’s prevision to select materials wisely based on its life cycle cost and environmental impact not only based on the initial cost. Electricity cost is always the highest cost at the life cycle cost of the building. Therefore, we focused in our comparison on the electricity consumption and cost during the life cycle of the water heater. Computing life cycle cost based on net present value assists project managers and clients to decide critically between alternatives. To understand client’s tendency in selecting materials, this paper applied qualitative and quantitative methods. Interviews with clients allow authors to illustrate the benefits of studying cost over a long-term. Results show that although solar water heater has higher capital cost, it shows a steady and very low increase comparing to electrical water heater.


Life cycle cost analysis Net present value Sensitivity analysis Water heater Al Ain United Arab Emirates 


  1. 1.
    Eisenberger I, Lorden G (1977) Life-cycle costing: practical consideration [online]. National Aeronautics and Space Administration, California. Accessed 25 June 2016. Available at
  2. 2.
    Shtub A, Bard JF, Globerson S (2005) Project management: engineering, technology and implementation, 2nd edn. Pearson Prentice Hall, USAGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Kulczycka J, Smol M (2016) Environmentally friendly pathways for the evaluation of investment projects using life cycle assessment (LCA) and life cycle cost analysis (LCCA). Clean Technol Environ Policy 18(3):829–842CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Kim H, Kang H (2016) A study on development of a cost optimal and energy saving building model: focused on industrial building. Energies 9(3):181CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    ASTM International (2013) Standard practice for measuring life-cycle costs of buildings and building systems. E917–13:2–6Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    International Standard Organization (ISO) (2016) ISO/DIS 15686-5.2(en) buildings and constructed assets—service-life planning—Part 5: life-cycle costing [online]. Accessed 13 Sept 2016. Available at
  7. 7.
    Buys A, Bendewald M, Tupper K (2011) Life cycle cost analysis: Is it worth the effort? ASHRAE Trans 117(1):541–548Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Martin M, Nikolopoulou C, Afshari A (2014) Life-cycle analysis of building retrofits at the urban scale: a case study in United Arab Emirates. Sustainability 6(1):453–473CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Abdelhamid T, El-Gafy M, Kshirsagar A (2010) Suitability of life cycle cost analysis (LCCA) as asset management tools for institutional buildings. J Facil Manage 8(3):162–178CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Ates S (2015) Life cycle cost analysis: an evaluation of renewable heating systems in Turkey. Energy Explor Exploit 33(4):621–638CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Stewart K, Gardiner P (2000) Revisiting the golden triangle of cost, time and quality: the role of NPV in project control, success and failure. Int J Project Manage 18(4):251–256CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Tang P, Bittner RB (2014) Use of value engineering to develop creative design solutions for marine construction projects. Pract Periodical Struct Des Constr 19(1):129–136CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Abu Dhabi Urban Planning Council (2010) Al Ain architectural guidelines [online]. Abu Dhabi Urban Planning Council, Abu Dhabi. Accessed 5 Sept 2016. Available at

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.British University in DubaiDubaiUAE

Personalised recommendations