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Texture

Chapter
Part of the Food Science Text Series book series (FSTS)

Abstract

Texture is one of the key attributes of foods, which is used to define product quality and acceptability. Food texture can be defined by the way in which the various constituents and structural elements are arranged and combined into a micro- and macrostructure, and by the external manifestations of this structure, in terms of flow and deformation. Texture measurements are used throughout the food value chain to monitor and control quality, from harvest to assessing the impacts of postharvest handling and processing on shelf life and consumer acceptance. Postharvest handling and processing conditions such as storage temperature can have a significant influence on, e.g., the textural properties of meat (Farag et al. 2009), apple quality and acceptability (Konopacka and Plocharski 2004), and storage and ripening of cut tomatoes (Lana et al. 2005). Addition of new ingredients, replacement of existing ones, or changes in processing conditions can result in both desirable and/or undesirable changes in texture. For example, added whey proteins and carbohydrate polymers alter food microstructure (Foegeding et al. 2010), added inulin and fructo-oligosaccharides alter bread texture (Morris and Morris 2012), pre-drying alters texture and oil uptake in potato chips (Pedreschia and Moyano 2005), frying conditions alter crispness of crackers (Saeleaw and Schleining 2011), and fat replacement alters biscuit quality (Sudha et al. 2007). The texture characteristics of foods can be evaluated by descriptive sensory (subjective) or instrumental (objective) analyses. Sensory analysis can be time-consuming and expensive; consequently, many empirical mechanical tests have been developed, the results of which correlate with the sensory analysis of food texture.

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Food Polymer Science ConsultancyMorris PlainsUSA
  2. 2.Louisiana State UniversityLakewood RanchUSA

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