Advertisement

Representing the Japanese Workplace: Linguistic Strategies for Getting the Work Done

  • Janet S. Shibamoto-Smith
Chapter
Part of the Communicating in Professions and Organizations book series (PSPOD)

Abstract

Company employees receive explicit training in verbal politeness. But models for how to speak in the workplace also circulate outside the explicit pedagogical sphere: popular media disseminate implicit messages to mass audiences about what language styles work in the workplace. This chapter examines mediatized messages about workplace speech circulating through televisual texts from the dual perspectives of norms about “appropriate” status asymmetric communication and gendered language. Data are drawn from two recent business dramas featuring both female and male characters. The focus is on directives as they operate within the more general framework of gendered speaking norms and serves to illustrate that a gendered distribution of access to directive forms aligns with and thus reinforces a more general matrix of gendered possibilities at work.

References

  1. Agha, Asif. 2007. Language and Social Relations. New York/Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  2. ———. 2010. Recycling Mediatized Personae Across Participation Frameworks. Pragmatics and Society 1 (2): 311–319.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. ———. 2011. Meet Mediatization. Language & Communication 31: 163–170.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Cole, Debbie, and Régine Pellicer. 2012. Uptake (un)Limited: The Mediatization of Register Shifting in U.S. Public Discourse. Language in Society 41 (4): 449–470.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Cook, Haruko Minegishi. 2011. Are Honorifics Polite? Uses of Referent Honorifics in a Japanese Committee. Journal of Pragmatics 43 (15): 3655–3672.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Dodd, Hannah E., and Ryan Redmond. n.d. Role Language as Register: A Reanalysis of Socialization Through Contact With Fictional Media. Unpublished Manuscript.Google Scholar
  7. 「花咲舞が黙ってない 2015」DVD-BOX (“Hanasaki Mai ga Damatte Nai 2015” DVD-Box). 2016. Tōkyō: Nihon Terebi.Google Scholar
  8. Hudson, Mutsuko Endo. 2008. Riyuu ‘Reason’ for Nai Desu and Other Semi-polite Forms. In Style Shifting in Japanese, ed. Kimberley Jones and Tsuyoshi Ono, 131–159. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. ———. 2011. Student Honorifics Usage in Conversations with Professors. Journal of Pragmatics 43 (15): 3689–3706.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 金水 敏 (Kinsui, Satoshi). 2003. ヴァーチャル日本語 役割語の謎 (Vācharu Nihongo: Yakuwarigo no Nazo). Tōkyō: Iwanami Shoten.Google Scholar
  11. ——— (ed.). 2011. 役割語研究の展開 (Yakuwarigo Kenkyū no Tenkai). Tōkyō : Kurosio Publishers.Google Scholar
  12. 金水 敏 (Kinsui Satoshi), 田中ゆかり(Tanaka Yukari), and 岡室美奈子(Okamuro Minako) (eds.). 2014. ドラマと方言の新しい関係 『カーネーション』から『八重の桜』、そして『あまちゃん』へ (Dorama to Hōgen no Atarashii Kankei: “Kānēshon” kara “Yae no Sakura”, Soshite “Ama-chan” e). Tōkyō : Kasama Shoin.Google Scholar
  13. 小林 美恵子 (Kobayashi, Mieko). 2003. 職場における命令・以来表現〜ジェンダー的視点から見る〜 (Shokuba ni okeru Meeree・Irai Hyōgen: Jendāteki Shiten kara Miru). ことば (Kotoba) 24: 13–25.Google Scholar
  14. Lukács, Gabrielle. 2010. Scripted Affects, Branded Selves: Television, Subjectivity, and Capitalism in 1990s Japan. Durham/London: Duke University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 増田 祥子 (Masuda, Shōko). 2012. 命令・依頼行為における男女の行動規範とイメージ〜「言葉遣い」の実用書を題材に〜 (Meeree・Irai Kōi ni okeru Danjo no Kōdō kihan to Imeeji: “Kotobazukai” no Jitsuyōsho o Daizai ni). ことば (Kotoba) 33: 50–68. Google Scholar
  16. 水本 光美 (Mizumoto, Terumi). 2006. テレビドラマと実社会における女性文末詞 使用のずれにみるジェンダーフィルタ (Terebi Dorama to Jisshakai ni okeru Josee Bunmatsushi Shiyō no Zure ni Miru Jendā Firuta). Nihongo Jendā Gakkai (ed.), 日本語とジェンダー(Nihongo to Jendā): 73–94. Tōkyō: Hitsuji Shobō.Google Scholar
  17. 水本 光美 (Mizumoto Terumi),福盛寿賀子 (Fukumori Sugako), and 高田恭子 (Takada Kyōko). 2008. ドラマに使われる女性文末詞―脚本家の意識調査よ り (Dorama ni tsukawareru josee bunmatsushi: Kyakuhonka no ishiki chōsa yori). 日本語とジェンダー (Nihongo to Jendā) 8: 11–26.Google Scholar
  18. 中村 桃子(Nakamura, Momoko). 2013. 翻訳がつくる日本語―ヒロインは「女ことば」を話し続ける (Honyaku ga Tsukuru Nihongo: Hiroin wa “Onnakotoba” o Hanashitsuzukeru). Tōkyō: Hakutakusha.Google Scholar
  19. Occhi, Debra J., Cindi L. SturtzSreetharan, and Janet S. Shibamoto-Smith. 2010. Finding Mr. Right: New Looks at Gendered Modernity in Japanese Televised Romances. Japanese Studies, Special Issue on Language in Public Spaces in Japan (Nanette Gottlieb, ed.), 30(3): 409–425.Google Scholar
  20. Okamoto, Shigeko. 2011. The Use and Interpretation of Addressee Honorifics and Plain Forms in Japanese: Diversity, Multiplicity, and Ambiguity. Journal of Pragmatics 43 (15): 3673–3688.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Okamoto, Shigeko, and Janet S. Shibamoto-Smith. 2008. Constructing Linguistic Femininity in Contemporary Japan: Scholarly and Popular Representations. Gender and Language 2 (1): 87–112.Google Scholar
  22. ———. 2016. The Social Life of the Japanese Language: Cutural Discourses and Situated Practice. New York/Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Pizziconi, Barbaara. 2011. Japanese Honorifics: The Cultural Specificity of a Universal Mechanism. In Politeness in East Asia: Theory and Practice, ed. Dánial Z. Kádár and Sara Mills, 45–70. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Quaglio, Paulo. 2009. Television Dialogue: The Sitcom Friends vs. Natural Conversation. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing Co.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Renshaw, Jean R. 1999. Kimono in the Boardroom: The Invisible Evolution of Japanese Women Managers. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  26. 「リスクの神様」DVD-BOX (“Risuku no Kamisama” DVD-Box). 2016. Tōkyō: Fuji Terebi/Pony Canyon.Google Scholar
  27. [Shibamoto] Smith, Janet S. 1992. Women in Charge: Politeness and Directives in the Speech of Japanese Women. Language in Society 21 (1): 59–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Shibamoto Smith, Janet S. 1999. From Hiren to Happī-endo: Romantic Expression in the Japanese Love Story. In Languages of Sentiment: Pragmatic and Conceptual Approaches to Cultural Constructions of Emotional Substrates, ed. Gary Palmer and Debra J. Occhi, 147–166. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins.Google Scholar
  29. ———. 2003. Gendered Structures in Japanese. In Gender Across Languages, ed. Marlis Hellinger and Hadumod βussmann, vol. 3, 201–225. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. ———. 2004. Language and Gender in the (hetero)Romance: ‘Reading’ the Ideal Hero/ine Through Lover’s Dialogue in Japanese Romance Fiction. In Japanese Language, Gender, and Ideology: Cultural Models and Real People, ed. Shigeko Okamoto and Janet S. Shibamoto Smith, 113–130. Oxford/New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  31. ———. 2008. Changing Lovestyles: Fictional Representations of Contemporary Japanese Men in Love. Positions: East Asia Cultures Critique 16 (2): 359–387.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Shibamoto Smith, Janet S., and Debra J. Occhi. 2009. The Green Leaves of Love: Japanese Romantic Heroines, Authentic Femininity, and Dialect. Journal of SocioLinguistics 13 (4): 524–546.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Shimodaira, Kumiko. 2004. Josee no Utsukushii Hanashikata to Kaiwajutsu. Tōkyō: Seebido Shuppan.Google Scholar
  34. 田部 康喜(Tabe Kōki). 2015. (企業ドラマは「戯画」か「偽画」か 日テレ「花咲舞が黙ってない」は続編も好評 テレ朝「エイジハラスメント」、フジ「リスクの神様」.... ( Kigyō Dorama wa 'Giga (戯画)' ka 'Giga (偽画)' ka: Nichitere 'Hanasaki Mai ga damatte nai' wa Zokuhen mo Kōhyō Tereasa 'Eeji harasumento', Fuji 'Risuku no kamisama'....) Wedge Infinity: Tabe Kōki no TV Dokuhon, 8/5//2015. (http://wedge.ismedia.jp/articles/-/5462, accessed September 25, 2015).
  35. Takano, Shoji. 2005. Re-examining Linguistic Power: Strategic Uses of Directives by Professional Japanese Women in Positions of Authority. Journal of Pragmatics 37: 633–666.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Teshigawara, Mihoko, and Satoshi Kinsui. 2011. Modern Japanese ‘Role Language’ (yakuwarigo): Fictionalised Orality in Japanese Literature and Popular Culture. Sociolinguistic Studies 5 (1): 37–58.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Janet S. Shibamoto-Smith
    • 1
  1. 1.University of California, DavisDavisUSA

Personalised recommendations