Advertisement

The Growing Sustainable Development Consensus

  • Jonathan Luckhurst
Chapter

Abstract

The core argument of this chapter is that there has been a growing sustainable development consensus since the GFC. This is important for the claims of the book, since this new development consensus was initially advocated by leading developing states, especially the Chinese and South Koreans. It builds on lessons learnt in several Asian countries, plus by World Bank staff and other development experts, following the 1997–98 Asian financial crisis. The contemporary sustainable development consensus comprises aspects of what could be called the ‘Asian model’, influenced by policymakers from China, India, Japan, and South Korea. The Bretton Woods institutions and G7 governments have lost influence on economic development principles, norms, and practices, relative to some of the aforementioned Asian and leading developing states, especially China.

References

  1. Abdenur, A. E. (2014, July). China and the BRICS development bank: Legitimacy and multilateralism in South-South Cooperation. IDS Bulletin, 45(4), 85–101, from: https://opendocs.ids.ac.uk/opendocs/handle/123456789/7324?show=full. Accessed 27 June 2017.
  2. ADB [Asian Development Bank]. (2016, May 2). ADB, AIIB sign MOU to strengthen cooperation for sustainable growth. ADB News Release. https://www.adb.org/news/adb-aiib-sign-mou-strengthen-cooperation-sustainable-growth. Accessed 27 June 2017.
  3. Alden, C., & Vieira, M. A. (2005). The new diplomacy of the south: South Africa, Brazil, India and trilateralism. Third World Quarterly, 26(7), 1077–1095.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Amin, M. K., & Li, J. (2014). Applying farmer technology acceptance model to understand farmer’s behavior intention to use ICT based microfinance platform: A comparative analysis between Bangladesh and China. WHICEB 2014 Proceedings, Wuhan international conference on e-business. Paper 31. http://aisel.aisnet.org/whiceb2014/31/. Accessed 27 June 2017.
  5. Angeloni, I., & Pisani-Ferry, J. (2012). The G20: Characters in search of an author (Bruegel working paper, no. 2012/04).Google Scholar
  6. Ansar, A., Flyvbjerg, B., Budzier, A., & Lunn, D. (2016). Does infrastructure investment lead to economic growth or economic fragility? Evidence from China. Oxford Review of Economic Policy, 32(3), 360–390.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Arditi, B. (2008). Arguments about the left turns in Latin America: A post-liberal politics? Latin American Research Review, 43(3), 59–81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Ban, C., & Blyth, M. (2013). The BRICs and the Washington consensus: An introduction. Review of International Political Economy, 20(2), 241–255.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Barr, M. D. (2000). Lee Kuan Yew and the “Asian values” debate. Asian Studies Review, 24(3), 309–334.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. BCBS [Basel Committee on Banking Supervision]. (2010). Basel III: A global regulatory framework for more resilient banks and banking systems. Basel: Bank for International Settlements. http://www.bis.org/publ/bcbs189.pdf. Accessed 27 June 2017.
  11. Beeson, M. (2000). Mahathir and the markets: Globalisation and the pursuit of economic autonomy in Malaysia. Pacific Affairs, 73(3), 335–351.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bergsten, C. F. (1998, December). Reviving the “Asian Monetary Fund.” Peterson Institute for International Economics, Policy Brief 98-8. https://piie.com/publications/policy-briefs/reviving-asian-monetary-fund. Accessed 27 June 2017.
  13. Brant, P. (2014, July 8). China’s foreign aid: New facts and figures. The interpreter. Lowy Institute for International Policy. https://www.lowyinstitute.org/the-interpreter/chinas-foreign-aid-new-facts-and-figures?p=true. Accessed 27 June 2017.
  14. Bräutigam, D., & Tang, X. (2011). African Shenzhen: China’s special economic zones in Africa. Journal of Modern African Studies, 49(1), 27–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. BRICS. (2012, March 29). Fourth BRICS summit—Delhi declaration. http://mea.gov.in/bilateral-documents.htm?dtl/19158/Fourth+BRICS+Summit++Delhi+Declaration. Accessed 27 June 2017.
  16. Broad, R. (2004). The Washington consensus meets the global backlash: Shifting debates and policies. Globalizations, 1(2), 129–154.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Callaghan, M. (2013, January 30). Relaunching the G20. Lowy Institute for International Policy, Analysis. https://www.lowyinstitute.org/publications/relaunching-g20. Accessed 27 June 2017.
  18. Calvo, G. A., & Mendoza, E. G. (1996). Mexico’s balance-of-payments crisis: A chronicle of a death foretold. Journal of International Economics, 41, 235–264.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Cameron, D. (2011). Governance for growth: Building consensus for the future. London: Prime Minister’s Office.Google Scholar
  20. Carin, B. (2013). Development in the G20: White elephant or cornerstone? Priorities for the G20: The St. Petersburg summit and beyond (pp. 21–24). Waterloo: CIGI. https://www.cigionline.org/publications/development-g20-white-elephant-or-cornerstone
  21. Chang, H.-J. (2000). The hazard of moral hazard: Untangling the Asian crisis. World Development, 28(4), 775–788.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Chen, W., Dollar, D., & Tang, H. (2016, June). Why is China investing in Africa? Evidence from the firm level (CESifo working paper, no. 5940). https://www.econstor.eu/bitstream/10419/144975/1/cesifo1_wp5940.pdf. Accessed 27 June 2017.
  23. Chin, G., & Dobson, H. (2015, March 3). China as G20 host in 2016: Dawn of Asian global leadership? Global Policy. http://www.globalpolicyjournal.com/blog/03/03/2015/china-g20-host-2016-dawn-asian-global-leadership. Accessed 27 June 2017.
  24. Cooper, A. F. (2008). Executive but expansive: The L20 as a project of ‘new’ multilateralism and ‘new’ regionalism. In A. F. Cooper, C. W. Hughes, & P. de Lombaerde (Eds.), Regionalisation and global governance: The taming of globalisation? (pp. 249–264). Abingdon: Routledge.Google Scholar
  25. Cooper, A. F., & Thakur, R. (2013). The Group of Twenty (G20). New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  26. Djiwandono, J. S. (2007). Ten years after the Asian crisis: An Indonesian insider’s view. In B. Muchhala (Ed.), Ten years after: Revisiting the Asian financial crisis (pp. 39–52). Washington, DC: Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars.Google Scholar
  27. Drysdale, P., Armstrong, S., Ascione, B., King, A., & Mowbray-Tsutsumi, J. (2017, May 15). How to respond to China’s belt and road initiative. East Asia Forum. http://www.eastasiaforum.org/2017/05/15/how-to-respond-to-chinas-belt-and-road-initiative/. Accessed 27 June 2017.
  28. Easterly, W. (2003). IMF and World Bank structural adjustment programs and poverty. In M. P. Dooley & J. A. Frankel (Eds.), Managing currency crises in emerging markets. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  29. Easterly, W. (2015, November). The trouble with the sustainable development goals. Current History, pp. 322–324. http://www.currenthistory.com/Easterly_CurrentHistory.pdf?utm_content=buffer4bde9&utm_medium=social&utm_source=twitter.com&utm_campaign=buffer. Accessed 27 June 2017.
  30. Fallon, P. R., & Lucas, R. E. B. (2002). The impact of financial crises on labor markets, household income, and poverty: A review of evidence. The World Bank Research Observer, 17(1), 21–45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Farole, T., & Akinci, G. (2011). Introduction. In T. Farole & G. Akinci (Eds.), Special economic zones: Progress, emerging challenges, and future directions (pp. 1–22). Washington, DC: World Bank.Google Scholar
  32. Fehling, M., Nelson, B. D., & Venkatapuram, S. (2013). Limitations of the millennium development goals: A literature review. Global Public Health, 8(10), 1109–1122.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Feldstein, M. (1998, March/April). Refocusing the IMF. Foreign Affairs, 77(2), 20–33.Google Scholar
  34. Ferchen, M. (2013). Whose China model is it anyway? The contentious search for consensus. Review of International Political Economy, 20(2), 390–420.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Ferdinand, P., & Wang, J. (2013). China and the IMF: From mimicry towards pragmatic international institutional pluralism. International Affairs, 89(4), 895–910.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Fukuda-Parr, S. (2004). Millennium Development Goals: Why they matter. Global Governance, 10, 395–402.Google Scholar
  37. Fukuyama, F. (1998, February 1). Asian values and the Asian crisis. Commentary, 105(2), 23–27. https://www.commentarymagazine.com/articles/asian-values-and-the-asian-crisis/. Accessed 27 June 2017.
  38. G7. (2016). G7 Ise-Shima leaders’ declaration. G7 Ise-Shima Summit. http://www.mofa.go.jp/files/000160266.pdf. Accessed 27 June 2017.
  39. G20. (2009). Leaders’ statement the Pittsburgh summit. G20 Leader Forum. http://g20.org/English/Documents/PastPresidency/201512/P020151225615583055801.pdf. Accessed 15 Nov 2016.
  40. G20. (2010a). The G-20 Toronto summit declaration. G20 Leader Forum. g20.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/12/Toronto_Declaration_eng.pdf. Accessed 27 June 2017.Google Scholar
  41. G20. (2010b). The Seoul summit document. G20 Leader Forum. g20.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/12/Seoul_Summit_ Document.pdf. Accessed 27 June 2017.Google Scholar
  42. G20. (2012, June 18–19). G20 leaders declaration. G20 Leader Forum, Los Cabos Summit. https://www.g20.org/Content/DE/_Anlagen/G7_G20/G20-loscabos-leaders-declaration.pdf?__blob=publicationFile&v=1. Accessed 27 June 2017.
  43. G20. (2015). G20 Leaders’ Communiqué. Antalya Summit. https://www.g20.org/Content/DE/_Anlagen/G7_G20/2015-g20-abschlusserklaerung-eng.pdf?__blob=publicationFile&v=1. Accessed 27 June 2017.
  44. G20. (2016). G20 Leaders’ Communiqué Hangzhou Summit. G20 Leader forum. http://www.g20.org/English/Dynamic/201609/t20160906_3396.html. Accessed 5 Sept 2016.
  45. G20 Finance. (2010). Communiqué Meeting of Finance Ministers and Central Bank Governors. Gyeongju, Republic of Korea. http://www.g20.utoronto.ca/2010/g20finance101023.pdf. Accessed 27 June 2017.
  46. Gan, J., & Mao, Y. (2016). China’s new silk road: Where does it lead? Asian Perspective, 40(1), 105–130.Google Scholar
  47. Griffiths, J. (2017, May 14). China’s new world order: Xi, Putin and others meet for Belt and Road Forum. CNN, from http://edition.cnn.com/2017/05/13/asia/china-belt-and-road-forum-xi-putin-erdogan/index.html. Accessed June 27, 2017.
  48. Gore, C. (2000). The rise and fall of the Washington consensus as a paradigm for developing countries. World Development, 28(5), 789–804.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Grabel, I. (2011). Not your grandfather’s IMF: Global crisis, ‘productive incoherence’ and developmental policy space. Cambridge Journal of Economics, 35, 805–830.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Graham, C., & Masson, P. (2002, November 1–8). The IMF’s dilemma in Argentina: Time for a new approach to lending? The Brookings Institution Policy Brief, Policy Brief 111.Google Scholar
  51. Grimes, W. W. (2011). The Asian monetary fund reborn? Implications of Chiang Mai initiative multilateralization. Asia Policy, 11, 79–104.Google Scholar
  52. Grugel, J., & Riggirozzi, P. (2012). Post-neoliberalism in Latin America: Rebuilding and reclaiming the state after crisis. Development and Change, 43(1), 1–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Halper, S. (2010). The Beijing consensus: How China’s authoritarian model will dominate the twenty-first century. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  54. He, A. (2016). The dragon’s footprints: China in the global economic governance system under the G20 framework. Waterloo: CIGI.Google Scholar
  55. Heilman, S. (2008). Policy experimentation in China’s economic rise. Studies in Comparative International Development, 43(1), 1–26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Helleiner, E. (2011). Understanding the 2007–2008 global financial crisis: Lessons for scholars of international political economy. Annual Review of Political Science, 14, 67–87.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Higgott, R. (1998). The Asian economic crisis: A study in the politics of resentment. New Political Economy, 3(3), 333–356.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Higgott, R., & Phillips, N. (2000). Challenging triumphalism and convergence: The limits of global liberalization in Asia and Latin America. Review of International Studies, 26(3), 359–379.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Hockett, R. C., Alpert, D., & Roubini, N. (2012, January). The way forward: Moving from the post-bubble, post-bust economy to renewed growth and competitiveness. Cornell Legal Studies. http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1987139. Accessed 27 June 2017.
  60. Hsu, S. (2017, January 14). How China’s Asian infrastructure investment bank fared its first year. Forbes. https://www.forbes.com/sites/sarahsu/2017/01/14/how-chinas-asian-infrastructure-investment-bank-fared-its-first-year/#56d98d0a5a7f. Accessed 27 June 2017.
  61. Hsu, S. P., Zhao, S., & Wu, Y. (Eds.). (2011). In search of China’s development model: Beyond the Beijing consensus. London/New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  62. Huang, Y. (2011). Rethinking the Beijing consensus. Asia Policy, 11, 1–26.Google Scholar
  63. IMF. (2006, April). World economic outlook: Globalization and inflation. Washington, DC: IMF.Google Scholar
  64. IMF. (2007a, April). Global financial stability report: Market developments and issues. Washington, DC: IMF.Google Scholar
  65. IMF. (2007b, April). World economic outlook: Spillovers and cycles in the global economy. Washington, DC: IMF.Google Scholar
  66. IMF. (2017, April 14). The IMF and the sustainable development goals. Factsheet. https://www.imf.org/en/About/Factsheets/Sheets/2016/08/01/16/46/Sustainable-Development-Goals. Accessed 27 June 2017.
  67. IMF Diversity Council. (2007). IMF diversity annual report 2007. Washington, DC: International Monetary Fund.Google Scholar
  68. Independent Evaluation Office of the IMF. (2003). The IMF and recent capital account crises: Indonesia, Korea, Brazil. Evaluation Report. Washington, DC: IMF. https://www.imf.org/external/np/ieo/2003/cac/pdf/all.pdf. Accessed 27 June 2017.
  69. Jones, R. (2013, April 26). ‘Too many cooks in the kitchen,’ warns MDG co-architect. Devex. https://www.devex.com/news/too-many-cooks-in-the-kitchen-warns-mdg-co-architect-80799. Accessed 27 June 2017.
  70. Kang, D. C. (2002). Crony capitalism: Corruption and development in South Korea and the Philippines. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Kaplan, E., & Rodrik, D. (2001, February). Did the Malaysian capital controls work? NBER working paper series (Working paper 8142). http://www.nber.org/papers/w8142.pdf. Accessed 27 June 2017.
  72. Kawai, M. (2015). From the Chiang Mai initiative to an Asian monetary fund. ADBI (Working paper series, no. 527). https://www.adb.org/sites/default/files/publication/160056/adbi-wp527.pdf
  73. Kelly, D. (2017, July 1). The ‘China solution’: Beijing responds to Trump. The Interpreter. Lowy Institute for International Policy. https://www.lowyinstitute.org/the-interpreter/china-solution-beijing-responds-trump. Accessed 27 June 2017.
  74. Kennedy, S. (2010). The myth of the Beijing consensus. Journal of Contemporary China, 19(65), 461–477.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Kissinger, H. A. (1998, February 8). How U.S. can end up as the good guy. Los Angeles Times. http://articles.latimes.com/1998/feb/08/opinion/op-16725. Accessed 27 June 2017.
  76. Kumar, R. (2017, January 30). Critics of the sustainable development goals were wrong. Here’s why. World Economic Forum. https://www.weforum.org/agenda/2017/01/turns-out-sdg-critics-were-wrong/
  77. Lipscy, P. Y. (2003). Japan’s Asian monetary fund proposal. Stanford Journal of East Asian Affairs, 3(1), 93–104.Google Scholar
  78. Luckhurst, J. (2016). G20 since the global crisis. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the People’s Republic of China. (2015, September 27). Xi Jinping delivers speech at high-level roundtable on South-South Cooperation, expounding on cooperation initiatives on South-South Cooperation in the new era and stressing to uplift South-South Cooperation cause to a new high. http://www.fmprc.gov.cn/mfa_eng/topics_665678/xjpdmgjxgsfwbcxlhgcl70znxlfh/t1302399.shtml. Accessed 27 June 2017.
  80. NDB [New Development Bank]. (2016, December 21). BRICS New Development Bank signs first loan agreement. Newsroom Media. http://www.ndb.int/media/brics-new-development-bank-signs-first-loan-agreement-2/. Accessed 27 June 2017.
  81. NDB [New Development Bank]. (2017, April 1). Opening remarks by President K. V. Kamath at the second annual meeting of the New Development Bank, New Delhi, India. http://www.ndb.int/president_desk/opening-remarks-president-k-v-kamath-second-annual-meeting-new-development-bank-new-delhi-india/. Accessed 27 June 2017.
  82. O’Keeffe, A., Pryke, J., & Wurf, H. (2017, February). Strengthening the Asian development bank in 21st century Asia. Sydney: Lowy Institute for International Policy. https://www.lowyinstitute.org/publications/strengthening-asian-development-bank-21st-century-asia. Accessed 27 June 2017.
  83. Obe, M. (2017, May 5). Asia divided over plan to strengthen crisis response. Nikkei Asian Review, from: http://asia.nikkei.com/Spotlight/ADB-Annual-Meeting-2017/Asia-divided-over-plan-to-strengthen-crisis-response
  84. Ocampo, J. A. (2009). Latin America and the global financial crisis. Cambridge Journal of Economics, 33, 703–724.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. OECD. (2015, April 8). Development aid stable in 2014 but flows to poorest countries still fall. Paris: OECD, from http://www.oecd.org/dac/stats/documentupload/ODA%202014%20Technical%20Note.pdf. Accessed 14 Sept 2017.
  86. Perrson, A., Weitz, N., & Nilsson, M. (2016). Follow-up and review of the sustainable development goals: Alignment vs. internalization. Review of European Community & International Environmental Law (RECIEL), 25(1), 59–68.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Poskitt, A., & Shankland, A. (2015, April). Innovation, solidarity and South-South learning: The role of civil society from middle-income countries in effective development cooperation. Institute of Development Studies. Synthesis Report. https://opendocs.ids.ac.uk/opendocs/bitstream/handle/123456789/12723/InnovationSynthesisReport_Web.pdf;jsessionid=E651716A3028956F00FF2DB3613F1DFA?sequence=1. Accessed 27 June 2017.
  88. Pu, X. (2012). Socialisation as a two-way process: Emerging powers and the diffusion of international norms. The Chinese Journal of International Politics, 5, 341–367.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Radelet, S., & Sachs, J. D. (1998). The East Asian financial crisis: Diagnosis, remedies, prospects. Brookings Papers on Economic Activity, (1), 1–55. http://www.jstor.org/stable/2534670?seq=1#page_scan_tab_contents. Accessed 27 June 2017.
  90. Ramo, J. C. (2004). The Beijing consensus. London: The Foreign Policy Centre.Google Scholar
  91. Ravenhill, J. (2002). A three bloc world? The new East Asian regionalism. International Relations of the Asia-Pacific, 2(2), 167–195.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Razak, N. (2017, May 12). Why Malaysia supports China’s belt and road. South China Morning Post. http://www.scmp.com/comment/insight-opinion/article/2094094/why-malaysia-supports-chinas-belt-and-road. Accessed 27 June 2017.
  93. Rodrik, D. (2006). Goodbye Washington consensus, hello Washington confusion? Journal of Economic Literature, 44(4), 973–987.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Rodrik, D. (2012). The globalization paradox: Why global markets, states, and democracy can’t coexist. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  95. Rogoff, K. (2002, July 2). An open letter to Joseph Stiglitz, by Kenneth Rogoff, economic counsellor and director of the research department, IMF. IMF views and commentaries. https://www.imf.org/en/News/Articles/2015/09/28/04/54/vc070202. Accessed 27 June 2017.
  96. Rogoff, K. (2003, February 10). The IMF strikes back. IMF views and commentaries. https://www.imf.org/en/News/Articles/2015/09/28/04/54/vc021003. Accessed 27 June 2017.
  97. Rolland, N. (2017). China’s “belt and road initiative”: Underwhelming or game-changer? The Washington Quarterly, 40(1), 127–142.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Sachs, J. D. (2015). The age of sustainable development. New York: Columbia University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Singh, A., Belaisch, A., Collyns, C., De Masi, P., Krieger, R., Meredith, G., & Rennhack, R. (2005, February). Stabilization and reform in Latin America: A macroeconomic perspective on the experience since the early 1990s. International Monetary Fund, Occasional paper 238. Washington, DC: IMF. http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/op/238/. Accessed 27 June 2017.
  100. Sohn, I. (2005). Asian financial cooperation: The problem of legitimacy in global financial governance. Global Governance, 11(4), 487–504.Google Scholar
  101. Stiglitz, J. E. (1996). Some lessons from the East Asian miracle. World Bank Research Observer, 11(2), 151–178. http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/786661468245419348/pdf/765590JRN0WBRO00Box374378B00PUBLIC0.pdf. Accessed 27 June 2017.
  102. Stiglitz, J. E. (1998, January). More instruments and broader goals: Moving toward the post-Washington consensus. The 1998 WIDER annual lecture, Helsinki, Finland. https://www.wider.unu.edu/sites/default/files/AL02-1998.pdf. Accessed 27 June 2017.
  103. Stiglitz, J. E. (2001, Summer). Failure of the fund. Rethinking the IMF response. Harvard International Review, 23(2), 14–18. https://www.jstor.org/stable/42762700?seq=1#fndtn-page_scan_tab_contents. Accessed 27 June 2017.
  104. Stiglitz, J. E. (2003). Globalization and the logic of international collective action: Re-examining the Bretton Woods Institutions. In D. Nayyar (Ed.), Governing globalization: Issues and institutions (pp. 238–253). Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  105. Stiglitz, J. E. (2004). Capital-market liberalization, globalization, and the IMF. Oxford Review of Economic Policy, 20(1), 57–71.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Stubbs, R. (2002). ASEAN plus three: Emerging east Asian regionalism? Asian Survey, 42(3), 440–455.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Subacchi, P., & Pickford, S. (2011, October). Legitimacy vs effectiveness for the G20: A dynamic approach to global economic governance. Chatham house briefing paper. London: Chatham House. https://www.chathamhouse.org/sites/files/chathamhouse/1011bp_subacchi_pickford.pdf. Accessed 27 June 2017.
  108. Sussangkarn, C. (2010, July). The Chiang Mai initiative multilateralization: Origin, development and outlook. ADBI (Working paper series, no. 230). https://www.adb.org/sites/default/files/publication/156085/adbi-wp230.pdf. Accessed 27 June 2017.
  109. Suzuki, S. (2015). Will the AIIB trigger off a new round of rivalry in economic diplomacy between China and Japan? Centre for the Study of Globalisation and Regionalisation (CSGR) (Working paper 279/15). Warwick: University of Warwick.Google Scholar
  110. Taneja, P. (2017, May 15). Why India missed China’s belt and road summit. The Interpreter. Sydney: Lowy Institute for International Policy. https://www.lowyinstitute.org/the-interpreter/why-india-missed-china-s-belt-and-road-summit. Accessed 27 June 2017.
  111. Taylor, A. M. (2010). Global finance after the crisis. Bank of England Quarterly Bulletin, 50(4), 366–377. http://search.proquest.com/openview/e1fab0085cc15f801aa574a7455d74c5/1?pq-origsite=gscholar&cbl=35225. Accessed 27 June 2017.
  112. Tiezzi, S. (2017, May 16). What did China accomplish at the belt and road forum? The Diplomat. http://thediplomat.com/2017/05/what-did-china-accomplish-at-the-belt-and-road-forum/. Accessed 27 June 2017.
  113. Transparency International. (1996). TI corruption perception index 1996. Berlin: Transparency International. https://www.transparency.org/files/content/tool/1996_CPI_EN.pdf. Accessed 27 June 2017.
  114. UN. (2015, September 25–27). United Nations summit on sustainable development 2015: Informal summary. New York: United Nations Headquarters. https://sustainabledevelopment.un.org/content/documents/8521Informal%20Summary%20-%20UN%20Summit%20on%20Sustainable%20Development%202015.pdf. Accessed 27 June.
  115. UNDP. (2017). South-South and global cooperation. UNDP in China. Undated web page. http://www.cn.undp.org/content/china/en/home/ourwork/south-south-cooperation/south-south-cooperation.html. Accessed 27 June 2017.
  116. UNGA. (2015, October 8). Importance of South-South Cooperation, official development assistance focus, as second committee continues debate on implementing 2030 agenda. UNGA meetings coverage and press releases. https://www.un.org/press/en/2015/gaef3422.doc.htm. Accessed 27 June 2017.
  117. Wade, R. H. (1996). Japan, the World Bank, and the art of paradigm maintenance: The East Asian miracle in political perspective. New Left Review, 217, 3–36. http://search.proquest.com/openview/9b2833c24295ad4f16efc66638b57f44/1?pq-origsite=gscholar&cbl=1819646. Accessed 27 June 2017.
  118. Wade, R. H., & Veneroso, F. (1998). The Asian crisis: The high debt model versus the Wall Street- Treasury-IMF complex. New Left Review, 228, 3–23. http://search.proquest.com/openview/73ab69bf05347b983e7c485a9cc54bb9/1?pq-origsite=gscholar&cbl=1819646. Accessed 27 June 2017.
  119. Weitz, N., Nilsson, M., & Davis, M. (2014). A nexus approach to the post-2015 agenda: Formulating integrated water, energy, and food SDGs. SAIS Review of International Affairs, 34(2), 37–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Williamson, J. (2012). Is the “Beijing consensus” now dominant? Asia Policy, 13, 1–16. http://www.nbr.org/publications/asia_policy/Preview/AP13_B_Williamson_preview.pdf. Accessed 27 June 2017.
  121. Woods, N. (2008). Whose aid? Whose influence? China, emerging donors and the silent revolution in development assistance. International Affairs, 84(6), 1205–1221.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Woods, N. (2010). Global governance after the financial crisis: A new multilateralism or the last gasp of the great powers? Global Polity, 1(1), 51–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. World Bank. (2001, October). Making sustainable commitments: An environment strategy for the World Bank. Washington, DC: World Bank. https://openknowledge.worldbank.org/handle/10986/13985. Accessed 27 June 2017.
  124. World Bank. (2005). Economic growth in the 1990s: Learning from a decade of reform. Washington, DC: World Bank. http://www1.worldbank.org/prem/lessons1990s/chaps/frontmatter.pdf. Accessed 27 June 2017.
  125. World Bank. (2017, April 23). World Bank and AIIB sign cooperation framework. Press release. http://www.worldbank.org/en/news/press-release/2017/04/23/world-bank-and-aiib-sign-cooperation-framework. Accessed 27 June 2017.
  126. World Bank and Development Research Center of the State Council. (2013). China 2030: Building a modern, harmonious, and creative society. Washington, DC: World Bank. http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/781101468239669951/pdf/762990PUB0china0Box374372B00PUBLIC0.pdf. Accessed 27 June 2017.
  127. Xi, J. (2017, January 17). President Xi’s speech to Davos in full. Davos: World Economic Forum. https://www.weforum.org/agenda/2017/01/full-text-of-xi-jinping-keynote-at-the-world-economic-forum. Accessed 25 Jan 2017.
  128. Yoshino, N. (2017, June 8). Abe takes a shine to China’s belt and road plan. Nikkei Asian Review. http://asia.nikkei.com/magazine/20170608/Politics-Economy/Abe-takes-a-shine-to-China-s-Belt-and-Road-plan. Accessed 27 June 2017.
  129. Zhao, S. (2010). The China model: Can it replace the Western model of modernization? Journal of Contemporary China, 19(65), 419–436.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jonathan Luckhurst
    • 1
  1. 1.University of GuadalajaraGuadalajaraMexico

Personalised recommendations