Clinical Options for Treatment of Hepatocellular Carcinoma

  • Matteo Virdis
  • Michela Monteleone
  • Michele Droz dit Busset
  • Vincenzo Mazzaferro


Management of HCC depends on tumor stage, liver function, and patient performance status (BCLC stage) and requires a multidisciplinary approach for optimal treatment. Hepatic resection, liver transplantation, and local ablation of HCC up to 3 cm are curative options in the early stage of disease. There have been significant advances in transarterial embolotherapies (TACE and TARE) in intermediate/advanced stages. Drug-eluting beads have improved the efficacy and safety of conventional TACE, and radioembolization has set a new standard of treatment that delivers the radiation effect to tumor location without compromising the surrounding fragile liver tissue. Molecular studies on HCC have identified aberrant activation of several signaling pathways, which may represent key targets for novel molecular therapies. Immunotherapy is emerging as an additional option in properly selected patients.


Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) Hepatic resection Liver transplantation Transarterial embolotherapies (TACE and TARE) Radioembolization Immunotherapy 





Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer


Computed tomography


Direct-acting antiviral


Drug-eluting beads


Disease-free survival


Hepatitis B virus


Hepatocellular carcinoma


Hepatitis C virus


Hepatitis D virus


Laser ablation


Living donor liver transplantation


Liver resection


Liver transplantation


Multiple detector computed tomography


Model for end-stage liver disease


Magnetic resonance imaging




Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease


Overall survival


Percutaneous ethanol injection


Performance status


Portal vein thrombosis


Radiofrequency ablation


Transarterial chemoembolization


Transarterial radioembolization


University of California at San Francisco


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Matteo Virdis
    • 1
  • Michela Monteleone
    • 1
  • Michele Droz dit Busset
    • 1
  • Vincenzo Mazzaferro
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Hepato-Oncology Group, Surgical OncologyHPB and Liver Transplantation, Istituto Nazionale Tumori (National Cancer Institute) IRCCS FoundationMilanItaly
  2. 2.University of MilanMilanItaly

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