Bone Metastases in Prostate Cancer

  • Maria Bonomi
  • Eleonora Cerchiaro
  • Elisa Villa
  • Lucia Rebecca Setti
  • Letizia Gianoncelli
  • Emanuele Micheli
  • Giovanni Luca Ceresoli
Chapter

Abstract

Bone metastases occur in more than 80% of men with metastatic prostate cancer. Affecting the structural integrity of the bone, they can lead to skeletal complications and pain, with a negative impact on patient quality of life and survival. The last decade has witnessed tremendous advances in the treatment of metastatic PCa. New therapeutic options that prolong overall survival are now available. The optimization of bone metastasis management (and prevention of skeletal morbidities) is therefore of paramount importance to improve clinical outcome. Some issues are still debated, such as the most effective radiologic or nuclear medicine technique to diagnose and monitor bone disease, the ideal surrogate circulating marker to assess response or progression to treatment, patient selection, as well as the optimal sequencing or combination of available therapeutic options. Several healthcare professionals play a role in the treatment of metastatic PCa. The presence of a multidisciplinary team for the discussion of treatment strategies for each patient should be the standard of care.

Keywords

Prostate cancer Bone metastasis evaluation Bone metastasis management Skeletal-related events Multidisciplinary team 

References

  1. 1.
    Zustovich F, Pastorelli D. Therapeutic management of bone metastasis in prostate cancer: an update. Expert Rev Anticancer Ther. 2016;16:1–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Parker C, Gillessen S, Heidenreich A, Horwich A, Esmo GC. Cancer of the prostate: ESMO clinical practice guidelines for diagnosis, treatment and follow-up. Ann Oncol. 2015;26(Suppl 5):v69–77.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Scher HI, Buchanan G, Gerald W, Butler LM, Tilley WD. Targeting the androgen receptor: improving outcomes for castration-resistant prostate cancer. Endocr Relat Cancer. 2004;11(3):459–76.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Newling DW. Re: secondary hormonal therapy for advanced prostate cancer. Eur Urol. 2006;49(5):925–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Tannock IF, Osoba D, Stockler MR, Ernst DS, Neville AJ, Moore MJ, et al. Chemotherapy with mitoxantrone plus prednisone or prednisone alone for symptomatic hormone-resistant prostate cancer: a Canadian randomized trial with palliative end points. J Clin Oncol. 1996;14(6):1756–64.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Kantoff PW, Halabi S, Conaway M, Picus J, Kirshner J, Hars V, et al. Hydrocortisone with or without mitoxantrone in men with hormone-refractory prostate cancer: results of the cancer and leukemia group B 9182 study. J Clin Oncol. 1999;17(8):2506–13.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Tannock IF, de Wit R, Berry WR, Horti J, Pluzanska A, Chi KN, et al. Docetaxel plus prednisone or mitoxantrone plus prednisone for advanced prostate cancer. N Engl J Med. 2004;351(15):1502–12.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Petrylak DP, Tangen CM, Hussain MH, Lara PN Jr, Jones JA, Taplin ME, et al. Docetaxel and estramustine compared with mitoxantrone and prednisone for advanced refractory prostate cancer. N Engl J Med. 2004;351(15):1513–20.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Mostaghel EA, Page ST, Lin DW, Fazli L, Coleman IM, True LD, et al. Intraprostatic androgens and androgen-regulated gene expression persist after testosterone suppression: therapeutic implications for castration-resistant prostate cancer. Cancer Res. 2007;67(10):5033–41.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    de Bono JS, Oudard S, Ozguroglu M, Hansen S, Machiels JP, Kocak I, et al. Prednisone plus cabazitaxel or mitoxantrone for metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer progressing after docetaxel treatment: a randomised open-label trial. Lancet. 2010;376(9747):1147–54.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Ryan CJ, Smith MR, Fizazi K, Saad F, Mulders PF, Sternberg CN, et al. Abiraterone acetate plus prednisone versus placebo plus prednisone in chemotherapy-naive men with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (COU-AA-302): final overall survival analysis of a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase 3 study. Lancet Oncol. 2015;16(2):152–60.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    de Bono JS, Logothetis CJ, Molina A, Fizazi K, North S, Chu L, et al. Abiraterone and increased survival in metastatic prostate cancer. N Engl J Med. 2011;364(21):1995–2005.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Scher HI, Fizazi K, Saad F, Taplin ME, Sternberg CN, Miller K, et al. Increased survival with enzalutamide in prostate cancer after chemotherapy. N Engl J Med. 2012;367(13):1187–97.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Beer TM, Armstrong AJ, Rathkopf DE, Loriot Y, Sternberg CN, Higano CS, et al. Enzalutamide in metastatic prostate cancer before chemotherapy. Lancet Oncol. 2014;371(5):424–33.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Parker C, Nilsson S, Heinrich D, Helle SI, O’Sullivan JM, Fossa SD, et al. Alpha emitter radium-223 and survival in metastatic prostate cancer. N Engl J Med. 2013;369(3):213–23.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Kantoff PW, Higano CS, Shore ND, Berger ER, Small EJ, Penson DF, et al. Sipuleucel-T immunotherapy for castration-resistant prostate cancer. N Engl J Med. 2010;363(5):411–22.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Saad F, Gleason DM, Murray R, Tchekmedyian S, Venner P, Lacombe L, et al. A randomized, placebo-controlled trial of zoledronic acid in patients with hormone-refractory metastatic prostate carcinoma. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2002;94(19):1458–68.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Fizazi K, Carducci M, Smith M, Damiao R, Brown J, Karsh L, et al. Denosumab versus zoledronic acid for treatment of bone metastases in men with castration-resistant prostate cancer: a randomised, double-blind study. Lancet. 2011;377(9768):813–22.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Bubendorf L, Schopfer A, Wagner U, Sauter G, Moch H, Willi N, et al. Metastatic patterns of prostate cancer: an autopsy study of 1,589 patients. Hum Pathol. 2000;31(5):578–83.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    RKW H, Wade SW, Reich A, Pirolli MA, Liede A, Lyman GH. Incidence of bone metastases in U.S. patients with solid tumors. J Clin Oncol. 2016;34:e13099.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Wang C, Shen Y, Zhu S. Distribution features of skeletal metastases: a comparative study between pulmonary and prostate cancers. PLoS One. 2015;10(11):e0143437.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Kakhki VR, Anvari K, Sadeghi R, Mahmoudian AS, Torabian-Kakhki M. Pattern and distribution of bone metastases in common malignant tumors. Nucl Med Rev Cent East Eur. 2013;16(2):66–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Coleman R, Body JJ, Aapro M, Hadji P, Herrstedt J, Esmo GWG. Bone health in cancer patients: ESMO clinical practice guidelines. Lancet Oncol. 2014;25(Suppl 3):iii124–37.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Oster G, Lamerato L, Glass AG, Richert-Boe KE, Lopez A, Chung K, et al. Natural history of skeletal-related events in patients with breast, lung, or prostate cancer and metastases to bone: a 15-year study in two large US health systems. Support Care Cancer. 2013;21(12):3279–86.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Weinfurt KP, Li Y, Castel LD, Saad F, Timbie JW, Glendenning GA, et al. The significance of skeletal-related events for the health-related quality of life of patients with metastatic prostate cancer. Ann Oncol. 2005;16(4):579–84.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Hagiwara M, Delea TE, Saville MW, Chung K. Healthcare utilization and costs associated with skeletal-related events in prostate cancer patients with bone metastases. Prostate Cancer Prostatic Dis. 2013;16(1):23–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Pockett RD, Castellano D, McEwan P, Oglesby A, Barber BL, Chung K. The hospital burden of disease associated with bone metastases and skeletal-related events in patients with breast cancer, lung cancer, or prostate cancer in Spain. Eur J Cancer Care. 2010;19(6):755–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Sabbatini P, Larson SM, Kremer A, Zhang ZF, Sun M, Yeung H, et al. Prognostic significance of extent of disease in bone in patients with androgen-independent prostate cancer. J Clin Oncol. 1999;17(3):948–57.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Saad F, Lipton A, Cook R, Chen YM, Smith M, Coleman R. Pathologic fractures correlate with reduced survival in patients with malignant bone disease. Cancer. 2007;110(8):1860–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Norgaard M, Jensen AO, Jacobsen JB, Cetin K, Fryzek JP, Sorensen HT. Skeletal related events, bone metastasis and survival of prostate cancer: a population based cohort study in Denmark (1999 to 2007). J Urol. 2010;184(1):162–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Sathiakumar N, Delzell E, Morrisey MA, Falkson C, Yong M, Chia V, et al. Mortality following bone metastasis and skeletal-related events among men with prostate cancer: a population-based analysis of US Medicare beneficiaries, 1999–2006. Prostate Cancer Prostatic Dis. 2011;14(2):177–83.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Valdagni R, Van Poppel H, Aitchison M, Albers P, Berthold D, Bossi A, et al. Prostate cancer unit initiative in Europe: a position paper by the European school of oncology. Crit Rev Oncol Hematol. 2015;95(2):133–43.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Weilbaecher KN, Guise TA, McCauley LK. Cancer to bone: a fatal attraction. Nat Rev Cancer. 2011;11(6):411–25.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Boyle WJ, Simonet WS, Lacey DL. Osteoclast differentiation and activation. Nature. 2003;423(6937):337–42.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Msaouel P, Pissimissis N, Halapas A, Koutsilieris M. Mechanisms of bone metastasis in prostate cancer: clinical implications. Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2008;22(2):341–55.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Autio KA, Morris MJ. Targeting bone physiology for the treatment of metastatic prostate cancer. Clin Adv Hematol Oncol. 2013;11(3):134–43.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Pedersen EA, Shiozawa Y, Pienta KJ, Taichman RS. The prostate cancer bone marrow niche: more than just ‘fertile soil’. Asian J Androl. 2012;14(3):423–7.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Vignani F, Bertaglia V, Buttigliero C, Tucci M, Scagliotti GV, Di Maio M. Skeletal metastases and impact of anticancer and bone-targeted agents in patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer. Cancer Treat Rev. 2016;44:61–73.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Berruti A, Dogliotti D, Tucci M, Scarpa RM, Angeli A. Hyperparathyroidism due to the so-called bone hunger syndrome in prostate cancer patients. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2002;87(4):1907–12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Smith MR. Treatment-related osteoporosis in men with prostate cancer. Clin Cancer Res. 2006;12(20 Pt 2):6315s–9s.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Caraceni A, Cherny N, Fainsinger R, Kaasa S, Poulain P, Radbruch L, et al. Pain measurement tools and methods in clinical research in palliative care: recommendations of an expert working Group of the European Association of palliative care. J Pain Symptom Manag. 2002;23(3):239–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Aaronson NK, Ahmedzai S, Bergman B, Bullinger M, Cull A, Duez NJ, et al. The European Organization for Research and Treatment of cancer QLQ-C30: a quality-of-life instrument for use in international clinical trials in oncology. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1993;85(5):365–76.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Cella DF, Tulsky DS, Gray G, Sarafian B, Linn E, Bonomi A, et al. The functional assessment of cancer therapy scale: development and validation of the general measure. J Clin Oncol. 1993;11(3):570–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Chu D, Popovic M, Chow E, Cella D, Beaumont JL, Lam H, et al. Development, characteristics and validity of the EORTC QLQ-PR25 and the FACT-P for assessment of quality of life in prostate cancer patients. J Comp Eff Res. 2014;3(5):523–31.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Payne H, Cornford P. Prostate-specific antigen: an evolving role in diagnosis, monitoring, and treatment evaluation in prostate cancer. Urol Oncol. 2011;29(6):593–601.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Mottet N, Bellmunt J, Bolla M, Briers E, Cumberbatch MG, De Santis M, et al. EAU-ESTRO-SIOG guidelines on prostate cancer. Part 1: screening, diagnosis, and local treatment with curative intent. Eur Urol. 2017;71(4):618–29.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Thuret R, Massard C, Gross-Goupil M, Escudier B, Di PM, Bossi A, et al. The postchemotherapy PSA surge syndrome. Ann Oncol. 2008;19(7):1308–11.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Scher HI, Halabi S, Tannock I, Morris M, Sternberg CN, Carducci MA, et al. Design and end points of clinical trials for patients with progressive prostate cancer and castrate levels of testosterone: recommendations of the prostate cancer clinical trials working group. J Clin Oncol. 2008;26(7):1148–59.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Coleman R, Costa L, Saad F, Cook R, Hadji P, Terpos E, et al. Consensus on the utility of bone markers in the malignant bone disease setting. Crit Rev Oncol Hematol. 2011;80(3):411–32.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Bertoldo F. Markers of bone turnover in bone metastasis from prostate cancer. In:Bone metastases from prostate cancer. Cham: Springer; 2017. p. 13–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Smith MR, Cook RJ, Coleman R, Brown J, Lipton A, Major P, et al. Predictors of skeletal complications in men with hormone-refractory metastatic prostate cancer. Urology. 2007;70(2):315–9.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Cook RJ, Coleman R, Brown J, Lipton A, Major P, Hei YJ, et al. Markers of bone metabolism and survival in men with hormone-refractory metastatic prostate cancer. Clin Cancer Res. 2006;12(11 Pt 1):3361–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Coleman RE, Major P, Lipton A, Brown JE, Lee KA, Smith M, et al. Predictive value of bone resorption and formation markers in cancer patients with bone metastases receiving the bisphosphonate zoledronic acid. J Clin Oncol. 2005;23(22):4925–35.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Lipton A, Cook R, Saad F, Major P, Garnero P, Terpos E, et al. Normalization of bone markers is associated with improved survival in patients with bone metastases from solid tumors and elevated bone resorption receiving zoledronic acid. Cancer. 2008;113(1):193–201.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Metwalli AR, Rosner IL, Cullen J, Chen Y, Brand T, Brassell SA, et al. Elevated alkaline phosphatase velocity strongly predicts overall survival and the risk of bone metastases in castrate-resistant prostate cancer. Urol Oncol. 2014;32(6):761–8.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Heindel W, Gubitz R, Vieth V, Weckesser M, Schober O, Schafers M. The diagnostic imaging of bone metastases. Dtsch Arztebl Int. 2014;111(44):741–7.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Eisenhauer EA, Therasse P, Bogaerts J, Schwartz LH, Sargent D, Ford R, et al. New response evaluation criteria in solid tumours: revised RECIST guideline (version 1.1). Eur J Cancer. 2009;45(2):228–47.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Hwang S, Panicek DM. Magnetic resonance imaging of bone marrow in oncology, part 2. Skelet Radiol. 2007;36(11):1017–27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Love C, Din AS, Tomas MB, Kalapparambath TP, Palestro CJ. Radionuclide bone imaging: an illustrative review. Radiographics. 2003;23(2):341–58.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Bombardieri E, Setti L, Kirienko M, Antunovic L, Guglielmo P, Ciocia G. Which metabolic imaging, besides bone scan with 99mTc-phosphonates, for detecting and evaluating bone metastases in prostatic cancer patients? An open discussion. Q J Nucl Med Mol Imaging. 2015;59(4):381–99.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Hillner BE, Siegel BA, Hanna L, Duan F, Quinn B, Shields AF. 18F-fluoride PET used for treatment monitoring of systemic cancer therapy: results from the National Oncologic PET registry. J Nucl Med. 2015;56(2):222–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Langester WR, Rezaee A, Beheshiti M. Nuclear medicine modalities to image bone metastases with bone-targeting agents: conventional scintigraphy and positron-emission tomography. In:Bone metastases from prostate cancer. Cham: Springer International; 2017. p. 61–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Incerti EM, Mapelli P, Picchio M. Detection of bone metastases and 7 evaluation of therapy response in prostate cancer patients by radiolabelled choline PET/C. In:Bone metastases from prostate cancer. Cham: Springer International; 2017. p. 75–85.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Roelofs AJ, Thompson K, Gordon S, Rogers MJ. Molecular mechanisms of action of bisphosphonates: current status. Clin Cancer Res. 2006;12(20 Pt 2):6222s–30s.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Saad F, Gleason DM, Murray R, Tchekmedyian S, Venner P, Lacombe L, et al. Long-term efficacy of zoledronic acid for the prevention of skeletal complications in patients with metastatic hormone-refractory prostate cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2004;96(11):879–82.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Smith MR, Halabi S, Ryan CJ, Hussain A, Vogelzang N, Stadler W, et al. Randomized controlled trial of early zoledronic acid in men with castration-sensitive prostate cancer and bone metastases: results of CALGB 90202 (alliance). J Clin Oncol. 2014;32(11):1143–50.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    James ND, Sydes MR, Clarke NW, Mason MD, Dearnaley DP, Spears MR, et al. Addition of docetaxel, zoledronic acid, or both to first-line long-term hormone therapy in prostate cancer (STAMPEDE): survival results from an adaptive, multiarm, multistage, platform randomised controlled trial. Lancet. 2016;387(10024):1163–77.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Wirth M, Tammela T, Cicalese V, Gomez Veiga F, Delaere K, Miller K, et al. Prevention of bone metastases in patients with high-risk nonmetastatic prostate cancer treated with zoledronic acid: efficacy and safety results of the Zometa European study (ZEUS). Eur Urol. 2015;67(3):482–91.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Lipton A, Goessl C. Clinical development of anti-RANKL therapies for treatment and prevention of bone metastasis. Bone. 2011;48(1):96–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Smith MR, Coleman RE, Klotz L, Pittman K, Milecki P, Ng S, et al. Denosumab for the prevention of skeletal complications in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer: comparison of skeletal-related events and symptomatic skeletal events. Ann Oncol. 2015;26(2):368–74.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Smith MR, Saad F, Coleman R, Shore N, Fizazi K, Tombal B, et al. Denosumab and bone-metastasis-free survival in men with castration-resistant prostate cancer: results of a phase 3, randomised, placebo-controlled trial. Lancet. 2012;379(9810):39–46.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Smith MR, Egerdie B, Hernandez Toriz N, Feldman R, Tammela TL, Saad F, et al. Denosumab in men receiving androgen-deprivation therapy for prostate cancer. N Engl J Med. 2009;361(8):745–55.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Ruggiero SL, Dodson TB, Assael LA, Landesberg R, Marx RE, Mehrotra B. American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons position paper on bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaws--2009 update. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2009;67(5 Suppl):2–12.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Saad F, Brown JE, Van PC, Ibrahim T, Stemmer SM, Stopeck AT, et al. Incidence, risk factors, and outcomes of osteonecrosis of the jaw: integrated analysis from three blinded active-controlled phase III trials in cancer patients with bone metastases. Ann Oncol. 2012;23(5):1341–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Tanvetyanon T, Stiff PJ. Management of the adverse effects associated with intravenous bisphosphonates. Ann Oncol. 2006;17(6):897–907.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Sartor O, Coleman R, Nilsson S, Heinrich D, Helle SI, O’Sullivan JM, et al. Effect of radium-223 dichloride on symptomatic skeletal events in patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer and bone metastases: results from a phase 3, double-blind, randomised trial. Lancet Oncol. 2014;15(7):738–46.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Berthold DR, Pond GR, Soban F, de WR, Eisenberger M, Tannock IF. Docetaxel plus prednisone or mitoxantrone plus prednisone for advanced prostate cancer: updated survival in the TAX 327 study. J Clin Oncol. 2008;26(2):242–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Gravis G, Fizazi K, Joly F, Oudard S, Priou F, Esterni B, et al. Androgen-deprivation therapy alone or with docetaxel in non-castrate metastatic prostate cancer (GETUG-AFU 15): a randomised, open-label, phase 3 trial. Lancet Oncol. 2013;14(2):149–58.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Sweeney CJ, Chen YH, Carducci M, Liu G, Jarrard DF, Eisenberger M, et al. Chemohormonal therapy in metastatic hormone-sensitive prostate cancer. N Engl J Med. 2015;373(8):737–46.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Bahl A, Oudard S, Tombal B, Ozguroglu M, Hansen S, Kocak I, et al. Impact of cabazitaxel on 2-year survival and palliation of tumour-related pain in men with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer treated in the TROPIC trial. Ann Oncol. 2013;24(9):2402–8.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    De Bono J, Hardy-Bessard A, Kim C, et al. Phase III non-inferiority study of cabazitaxel 20 mg/m2 versus 25 mg/m2 in patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer previously treated with docetaxel. J Clin Oncol. 2016;34:5008.Google Scholar
  82. 82.
    Sartor O, Oudard S, Sengelov L, et al. Cabazitaxel versus docetaxel in chemotherapy-naïve patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer: a three-arm phase III study (FIRSTANA). J Clin Oncol. 2016;34:5006.Google Scholar
  83. 83.
    Logothetis CJ, Efstathiou E, Manuguid F, Kirkpatrick P. Abiraterone acetate. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2011;10(8):573–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Fizazi K, Scher HI, Molina A, Logothetis CJ, Chi KN, Jones RJ, et al. Abiraterone acetate for treatment of metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer: final overall survival analysis of the COU-AA-301 randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase 3 study. Lancet Oncol. 2012;13(10):983–92.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Logothetis CJ, Basch E, Molina A, Fizazi K, North SA, Chi KN, et al. Effect of abiraterone acetate and prednisone compared with placebo and prednisone on pain control and skeletal-related events in patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer: exploratory analysis of data from the COU-AA-301 randomised trial. Lancet Oncol. 2012;13(12):1210–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Ryan CJ, Smith MR, de Bono JS, Molina A, Logothetis CJ, de Souza P, et al. Abiraterone in metastatic prostate cancer without previous chemotherapy. N Engl J Med. 2013;368(2):138–48.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Rathkopf DE, Smith MR, De Bono JS, Logothetis CJ, Shore ND, De Souza P, et al. Updated interim efficacy analysis and long-term safety of abiraterone acetate in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer patients without prior chemotherapy (COU-AA-302). Eur Urol. 2014;66(5):815–25.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Basch E, Autio K, Ryan CJ, Mulders P, Shore N, Kheoh T, et al. Abiraterone acetate plus prednisone versus prednisone alone in chemotherapy-naive men with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer: patient-reported outcome results of a randomised phase 3 trial. Lancet Oncol. 2013;14(12):1193–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Saad F, Shore N, Van PH, Rathkopf DE, Smith MR, de Bono JS, et al. Impact of bone-targeted therapies in chemotherapy-naive metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer patients treated with abiraterone acetate: post hoc analysis of study COU-AA-302. Eur Urol. 2015;68(4):570–7.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Tran C, Ouk S, Clegg NJ, Chen Y, Watson PA, Arora V, et al. Development of a second-generation antiandrogen for treatment of advanced prostate cancer. Science. 2009;324(5928):787–90.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Fizazi K, Scher HI, Miller K, Basch E, Sternberg CN, Cella D, et al. Effect of enzalutamide on time to first skeletal-related event, pain, and quality of life in men with castration-resistant prostate cancer: results from the randomised, phase 3 AFFIRM trial. BJU Int. 2014;15(10):1147–56.Google Scholar
  92. 92.
    Beer TM, Armstrong AJ, Rathkopf D, Loriot Y, Sternberg CN, Higano CS, et al. Enzalutamide in men with chemotherapy-naive metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer: extended analysis of the phase 3 PREVAIL study. Eur Urol. 2017;71(2):151–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Loriot Y, Miller K, Sternberg CN, Fizazi K, De Bono JS, Chowdhury S, et al. Effect of enzalutamide on health-related quality of life, pain, and skeletal-related events in asymptomatic and minimally symptomatic, chemotherapy-naive patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (PREVAIL): results from a randomised, phase 3 trial. Lancet Oncol. 2015;16(5):509–21.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Evans CP, Higano CS, Keane T, Andriole G, Saad F, Iversen P, et al. The PREVAIL study: primary outcomes by site and extent of baseline disease for enzalutamide-treated men with chemotherapy-naive metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer. Eur Urol. 2016;70(4):675–83.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Smith MR, Sweeney CJ, Corn PG, Rathkopf DE, Smith DC, Hussain M, et al. Cabozantinib in chemotherapy-pretreated metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer: results of a phase II nonrandomized expansion study. J Clin Oncol. 2014;32(30):3391–9.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Smith M, Bono JD, Sternberg C, Moulec SL, Oudard S, Giorgi UD, et al. Phase III study of cabozantinib in previously treated metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer: COMET-1. J Clin Oncol. 2016;34(25):3005–13.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Basch EM, Scholz M, De Bono JS, Vogelzang NJ, et al. Final analysis of COMET-2: Cabozantinib (Cabo) versus mitoxantrone/prednisone (MP) in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) patients (pts) with moderate to severe pain who were previously treated with docetaxel (D) and abiraterone (a) and/or enzalutamide (E). J Clin Oncol. 2015;33:141.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Cheon PM, Wong E, Thavarajah N, Dennis K, Lutz S, Zeng L, et al. A definition of “uncomplicated bone metastases” based on previous bone metastases radiation trials comparing single-fraction and multi-fraction radiation therapy. J Bone Oncol. 2015;4(1):13–7.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Chow E, Zeng L, Salvo N, Dennis K, Tsao M, Lutz S. Update on the systematic review of palliative radiotherapy trials for bone metastases. Clin Oncol (R Coll Radiol). 2012;24(2):112–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Lutz S, Balboni T, Jones J, Lo S, Petit J, Rich SE, et al. Palliative radiation therapy for bone metastases: update of an ASTRO evidence-based guideline. Pract Radiat Oncol. 2017;7(1):4–12.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Delank KS, Wendtner C, Eich HT, Eysel P. The treatment of spinal metastases. Dtsch Arztebl Int. 2011;108(5):71–9. quiz 80PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Maranzano E, Bellavita R, Rossi R, De AV, Frattegiani A, Bagnoli R, et al. Short-course versus split-course radiotherapy in metastatic spinal cord compression: results of a phase III, randomized, multicenter trial. J Clin Oncol. 2005;23(15):3358–65.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Maranzano E, Trippa F, Casale M, Costantini S, Lupattelli M, Bellavita R, et al. 8Gy single-dose radiotherapy is effective in metastatic spinal cord compression: results of a phase III randomized multicentre Italian trial. Radiother Oncol. 2009;93(2):174–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Rades D, Lange M, Veninga T, Stalpers LJ, Bajrovic A, Adamietz IA, et al. Final results of a prospective study comparing the local control of short-course and long-course radiotherapy for metastatic spinal cord compression. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2011;79(2):524–30.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Rades D, Segedin B, Conde-Moreno AJ, Garcia R, Perpar A, Metz M, et al. Radiotherapy with 4 Gy x 5 versus 3 Gy x 10 for metastatic epidural spinal cord compression: final results of the SCORE-2 trial (ARO 2009/01). J Clin Oncol. 2016;34(6):597–602.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Chow E, JS W, Hoskin P, Coia LR, Bentzen SM, Blitzer PH. International consensus on palliative radiotherapy endpoints for future clinical trials in bone metastases. Radiother Oncol. 2002;64(3):275–80.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Wong E, Hoskin P, Bedard G, Poon M, Zeng L, Lam H, et al. Re-irradiation for painful bone metastases - a systematic review. Radiother Oncol. 2014;110(1):61–70.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Lutz S, Berk L, Chang E, Chow E, Hahn C, Hoskin P, et al. Palliative radiotherapy for bone metastases: an ASTRO evidence-based guideline. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2011;79(4):965–76.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Chow E, van dLYM, Roos D, Hartsell WF, Hoskin P, Wu JS, et al. Single versus multiple fractions of repeat radiation for painful bone metastases: a randomised, controlled, non-inferiority trial. Lancet Oncol. 2014;15(2):164–71.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Sridharan S, Steigler A, Spry NA, Joseph D, Lamb DS, Matthews JH, et al. Oligometastatic bone disease in prostate cancer patients treated on the TROG 03.04 RADAR trial. Radiother Oncol. 2016;121(1):98–102.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Singh D, Yi WS, Brasacchio RA, Muhs AG, Smudzin T, Williams JP, et al. Is there a favorable subset of patients with prostate cancer who develop oligometastases? Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2004;58(1):3–10.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Ahmed KA, Barney BM, Davis BJ, Park SS, Kwon ED, Olivier KR. Stereotactic body radiation therapy in the treatment of oligometastatic prostate cancer. Front Oncol. 2012;2:215.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Ost P, Jereczek-Fossa BA, NV A, Zilli T, Muacevic A, Olivier K, et al. Progression-free survival following stereotactic body radiotherapy for oligometastatic prostate cancer treatment-naive recurrence: a multi-institutional analysis. Eur Urol. 2016;69(1):9–12.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Decaestecker K, De MG, Lambert B, Delrue L, Fonteyne V, Claeys T, et al. Repeated stereotactic body radiotherapy for oligometastatic prostate cancer recurrence. Radiat Oncol. 2014;9:135.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Berkovic P, De MG, Delrue L, Lambert B, Fonteyne V, Lumen N, et al. Salvage stereotactic body radiotherapy for patients with limited prostate cancer metastases: deferring androgen deprivation therapy. Clin Genitourin. 2013;11(1):27–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Luzzati A, Scotto G, Perrucchini G, Zoccali C. Surgery: treatment of oligometastatic disease. In:Bone metastases from prostate cancer. Cham: Springer; 2017. p. 147–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Agarwal MG, Nayak P. Management of skeletal metastases: an orthopaedic surgeon’s guide. Indian J Orthop. 2015;49(1):83–100.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Shibata H, Kato S, Sekine I, Abe K, Araki N, Iguchi H, et al. Diagnosis and treatment of bone metastasis: comprehensive guideline of the Japanese Society of Medical Oncology, Japanese Orthopedic association, Japanese Urological Association, and Japanese Society for Radiation Oncology. ESMO Open. 2016;1(2):e000037.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Maria Bonomi
    • 1
  • Eleonora Cerchiaro
    • 1
  • Elisa Villa
    • 2
  • Lucia Rebecca Setti
    • 3
  • Letizia Gianoncelli
    • 1
  • Emanuele Micheli
    • 4
  • Giovanni Luca Ceresoli
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Medical OncologyCliniche Humanitas GavazzeniBergamoItaly
  2. 2.Department of Radiation OncologyCliniche Humanitas GavazzeniBergamoItaly
  3. 3.Department of Nuclear MedicineCliniche Humanitas GavazzeniBergamoItaly
  4. 4.Department of UrologyCliniche Humanitas GavazzeniBergamoItaly

Personalised recommendations