Strabismus pp 285-295 | Cite as


  • Burton J. Kushner


Nystagmus has been defined as involuntary to-and-fro rhythmic and repeated eye movements. Nystagmus can be congenital due to either a sensory vision deficit or a congenital motor abnormality. One large study found a sensory cause in 91% of patients with congenital nystagmus, almost half of whom had albinism [1]. It also can be acquired due to a host of medical and neurologic disorders. This chapter addresses only the types of nystagmus of interest to the strabismologist.


Abnormal head posture Albinism Artificial divergence Kestenbaum–Anderson surgery Nystagmus Latent Optokinetic Manifest latent Prisms for Surgery for Periodic alternating Nystagmus compensation syndrome Paradoxical pupil Posterior fixation Prisms Retroequatorial recession Tenotomy and reinsertion 


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© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Burton J. Kushner
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Ophthalmology and Visual SciencesUniversity of Wisconsin-MadisonMadisonUSA

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