Advertisement

Multicultural Psychology

  • Greg Bohall
  • Mary-Jo Bautista
Chapter
  • 419 Downloads

Abstract

As with most considerations in the previous chapters, the concepts, theories, and ideas presented in this chapter have personal and professional development implications. On the personal development side, committing to a lifelong journey of personal exploration of differences opens the doors to not only a better understanding of the self but an improved understanding of the human condition as well. Educational and experiential training allow the individual to be exposed to diversity in order to best understand another individual’s experience. Solely on the professional development side, the ability to tailor interventions to diverse populations based on your personal exploration is necessary. Although this chapter serves as a valuable resource in relating multiculturalism to personal and professional development, this is not meant to be an all-inclusive source in the field of multicultural psychology. In this chapter, we first outline concepts, define key terms, and provide ethical guidelines and information in multicultural psychology to improve understanding in this area. Next, we review discrimination and provide an evolution of racial discrimination to best understand the different forms that it undertakes. Although the focus is on racial discrimination, the ideas can be considered when looking at other discriminatory behaviors. The focus is then shifted to the exploration of self; in this area, we review diversity variables and facilitate this personal exploration through the lens of cultural self-identity and worldview. After this personal exploration, we review components of what we call “active cultural competency” or an immersion-focused experiential way of understanding a population. The chapter is concluded with a listing of diverse organizations and academic journals followed by the identification of influential leaders in the field of multicultural psychology.

Keywords

Multicultural psychology Cultural competence Color-blind racial ideology Worldview Discrimination 

References

  1. Alegría, M., Canino, G., Rios, R., Vera, M., Calderon, J., Rusch, D., & Ortega, A. N. (2002). Mental health care for Latinos: Inequalities in use of specialty mental health services among Latinos, African Americans, and non-Latino Whites. Psychiatric Services, 53, 1547–1555. doi:  10.1176/appi.ps.53.12.1547
  2. American Psychological Association. (2002). Guidelines on multicultural education, training, research, practice, and organizational change for psychologists. Washington, DC: Author.Google Scholar
  3. American Psychological Association. (2016). Ethical principles of psychologists and code of conduct. Retrieved from http://www.apa.org/ethics/code/
  4. Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990, 42 U.S.C.A. Sec. §12101.Google Scholar
  5. Arredondo, P., Toporek, M. S., Brown, S., Jones, J., Locke, D. C., Sanchez, J., & Stadler, H. (1996). Operationalization of the multicultural counseling competencies. Alexandria, VA: Association for Multicultural Counseling and Development.Google Scholar
  6. Association of Black Psychologists. (2003). Psychological treatment of ethnic minority populations. Washington, DC: Author.Google Scholar
  7. Atkinson, D. R. (2004). Counseling American minorities (6th ed.). Boston, MA: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  8. Atkinson, D. R., Morten, G., & Sue, D. W. (1993). Counseling American minorities: A cross-cultural perspective. Madison, WI: WCB Brown & Benchmark.Google Scholar
  9. Berry, J. W., Kim, U., Minde, T., & Mok, D. (1987). Comparative studies of acculturative stress. International Migration Review, 21(3), 491–511. doi:  10.2307/2546607
  10. Betancourt, J. R., Green, A. R., Carrillo, J. E., & Ananhe-Firempong, O. (2003). Defining cultural competence: A practical framework for addressing racial/ethnic disparities in health and health care. Public Health Reports, 118, 293–302. doi:  10.1016/S0033-3549(04)50253-4
  11. Borowsky, S. J., Rubenstein, L. V., Meredith, L. S., Camp, P., Jackson-Triche, M., & Wells, K. B. (2000). Who is at risk of nondetection of mental health problems in primary care? Journal of General Internal Medicine, 15(6), 381–388. doi:  10.1046/j.1525-1497.2000.12088.x
  12. Boyd-Franklin, N. (2010). Incorporating spirituality and religion into the treatment of African American clients. The Counseling Psychologist, 38(7), 976-1000. doi:  10.1177/0011000010374881
  13. Cardemil, E. V., & Battle, C. L. (2003). Guess who’s coming to therapy? Getting comfortable with conversations about race and ethnicity in psychotherapy. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 34(3), 278–286. doi:  10.1037/0735-7028.34.3.278
  14. Carmichael, S., & Hamilton, C. V. (1967). Black power: The politics of liberation in America. New York, NY: Vintage.Google Scholar
  15. Carpenter-Song, E., Chu, E., Drake, R. E., Ritsema, M., Smith, B., & Alverson, H. (2010). Ethnocultural variations in the experience and meaning of mental illness and treatment: Implications for access and utilization. Transcultural Psychiatry, 47(2), 224–251. doi:  10.1177/1363461510368906
  16. Casas, J. M. (1984). Policy, training, and research in counseling psychology: The racial/ethnic minority perspective. In S. S. Brown & R. W. Lent (Eds.), Handbook of counseling psychology (pp. 785–831). New York, NY: Wiley.Google Scholar
  17. Colby, S. L., & Ortman, J. M. (2015). Projections of the size and composition of the U.S. population: 2014-2016; Population estimates and projections. Washington, DC: United States Census Bureau.Google Scholar
  18. Cook, B. L., Zuvekas, S. H., Carson, N., Wayne, G. F., Vesper, A., & McGuire, T. G. (2014). Assessing racial/ethnic disparities in treatment across episodes of mental health care. Health Services Research, 49(1), 206–229. doi:  10.1111/1475-6773.12095
  19. Drug Policy Alliance. (2017). Background on New York’s draconian Rockefeller drug laws. New York, NY: Author.Google Scholar
  20. Flowers, L. R. (2009). The ACA encyclopedia of counseling. Alexandria, VA: American Counseling Association.Google Scholar
  21. Gaertner, S. L., & Dovidio, J. F. (1986). The aversive form of racism. In J. F. Dovidio & S. L. Gaertner (Eds.), Prejudice, discrimination, and racism (pp. 61–90). Orlando, FL: Academic.Google Scholar
  22. Guinier, L., & Torres, G. (2007). The ideology of colorblindness. In C. Gallagher (Ed.), Rethinking the color line: Readings in race and ethnicity (3rd ed.pp. 143–148). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  23. Ifill, G. (2009). The breakthrough: Politics and race in the age of Obama. New York, NY: Doubleday.Google Scholar
  24. Kohn-Wood, L. P., & Hooper, L. M. (2014). Cultural competency, culturally tailored care, and the primary care setting: Possible solutions to reduce racial/ethnic disparities in mental health care. Journal of Mental Health Counseling, 36(2), 173–188. doi:  10.17744/mehc.36.2.d73h217l81tg6uv3
  25. Mio, J. S., Barker, L. A., & Tumambing, J. S. (2012). Multicultural psychology: Understanding our diverse communities (3rd ed.). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  26. Neville, H. A., Awad, G. H., Brooks, J. E., Flores, M. P., & Bluemel, J. (2013). Color-blind racial ideology: Theory, training, and measurement implications in psychology. American Psychologist, 68(6), 455–466. doi:  10.1037/a0033282
  27. Pedersen, P. (1990). The multicultural perspective as a fourth force in counseling. Journal of Mental Health Counseling, 12(1), 93–95.Google Scholar
  28. Pierce, C., Carew, J., Pierce-Gonzalez, D., & Willis, D. (1978). An experiment in racism: TV commercials. In C. Pierce (Ed.), Television and education (pp. 62–88). Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  29. Richman, L. S., Kohn-Wood, L. P., & Williams, D. R. (2007). The role of discrimination and racial identity for mental health service utilization. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 26, 960–981. doi:  10.1521/jscp.2007.26.8.960
  30. Ridley, C. R. (1995). Overcoming unintentional racism in counseling and therapy: A practitioner’s guide to intentional intervention. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  31. Sears, D. O. (1988). Symbolic racism. In P. A. Katz & D. A. Taylor (Eds.), Eliminating racism: Profiles in controversy (pp. 53–84). New York, NY: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Smedley, B. D., Stith, A. Y., & Nelson, A. R. (2003). Unequal treatment: Confronting racial and ethnic disparities in health care. Washington, DC: Institute of Medicine, National Academies.Google Scholar
  33. Spencer, M. S., & Chen, J. (2004). Effect of discrimination on mental health service utilization among Chinese Americans. American Journal of Public Health, 94(5), 809–814. doi:  10.2105/AJPH.94.5.809
  34. Sue, D. W. (1978). Eliminating cultural oppression in counseling: Toward a general theory. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 25(5), 419–428.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Sue, D. W., & Sue, D. (2003). Counseling the culturally diverse: Theory and practice. New York, NY: Wiley.Google Scholar
  36. Sue, D. W., Capodilupo, C. M., Torino, G. C., Bucceri, J. M., Holder, A.M.B., Nadal, K. L., & Esquilin, M. (2007). Racial microaggressions in everyday life: Implications for clinical practice. American Psychologist, 62(4), 271–286. doi:  10.1037/0003-066X.62.4.271
  37. Thomas, K. C., & Snowden, L. R. (2001). Minority response to health insurance coverage for mental health services. Journal of Mental Health Policy and Economics, 4(1), 35–41.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. United States Census Bureau. (2017). United States Quick Facts. Retrieved from https://www.census.gov/quickfacts/table/PST045216/00
  39. Wells, K., Klap, R., Koike, A., & Sherbourne, C. (2001). Ethnic disparities in unmet needs for alcoholism, drug abuse, and mental health care. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 158(12), 2027–2032. doi:  10.1176/appi.ajp.158.12.2027
  40. Whaley, A. L. (2001). Cultural mistrust and mental health services for African Americans: A review and meta-analysis. The Counseling Psychologist, 29(4), 513–531. doi:  10.1177/0011000001294003

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Greg Bohall
    • 1
  • Mary-Jo Bautista
    • 2
  1. 1.CHE Behavioral Health ServicesLos AngelesUSA
  2. 2.BellflowerUSA

Personalised recommendations