Combining Measurements

  • Luca Lista
Part of the Lecture Notes in Physics book series (LNP, volume 941)


The problem of combining two or more measurements of the same unknown quantity θ can be addressed in general by building a likelihood function that combines two or more data samples. If the measurements are independent, the combined likelihood function is given by the product of the individual likelihood functions and depends on the unknown parameter present in each of them, at least some of which are in common among different measurements. The minimization of the combined likelihood function provides an estimate of θ that takes into account all the individual data samples.


  1. 1.
    The ALEPH, DELPHI, L3, OPAL Collaborations, the LEP Electroweak Working Group: Electroweak measurements in electron-positron collisions at W-boson-pair energies at LEP. Phys. Rep. 532, 119 (2013)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    The ALEPH, DELPHI, L3, OPAL, SLD Collaborations, the LEP Electroweak Working Group, the SLD Electroweak and Heavy Flavour Groups: Precision electroweak measurements on the Z resonance. Phys. Rep. 427, 257 (2006)ADSGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    The GFitter Group, Baak, M., et al.: The global electroweak fit at NNLO and prospects for the LHC and ILC. Eur. Phys. J. C 74, 3046 (2014)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    The LEP Electroweak Working Group.
  5. 5.
    A Generic Fitter Project for HEP Model Testing.
  6. 6.
    Lyons, L., Gibaut, D., Clifford, P.: How to combine correlated estimates of a single physical quantity. Nucl. Inst. Methods A270, 110–117 (1988)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Greenlee, H.: Combining CDF and D0 physics results. Fermilab Workshop on Confidence Limits (2000)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    The CDF and D0 Collaborations: Combination of CDF and DO results on the mass of the top quark using up to 5.8 fb−1 of data. FERMILAB-TM-2504-E, CDF-NOTE-10549, D0-NOTE-6222 (2011)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    The ATLAS and CMS Collaborations: Combination of ATLAS and CMS results on the mass of the top quark using up to 4.9 fb−1 of data. ATLAS-CONF-2012-095, CMS-PAS-TOP-12-001 (2012)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Valassi, A., Chierici, R.: Information and treatment of unknown correlations in the combination of measurements using the BLUE method. Eur. Phys. J. C 74, 2717 (2014)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    ATLAS and CMS Collaborations: Combination of ATLAS and CMS results on the mass of the top-quark using up to 4.9 fb -1 of \(\sqrt{s} = 7\) TeV LHC data. ATLAS-CONF-2013-102, CMS-PAS-TOP-13-005 (2013)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    ATLAS and CMS Collaborations: Combination of ATLAS and CMS ttbar charge asymmetry measurements using LHC proton-proton collisions at \(\sqrt{s} = 7\) TeV. ATLAS-CONF-2014-012, CMS-PAS-TOP-14-006 (2014)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    ATLAS, CMS, CDF and D0 Collaborations: First combination of Tevatron and LHC measurements of the top-quark mass. ATLAS-CONF-2014-008, CDF-NOTE-11071, CMS-PAS-TOP-13-014, D0-NOTE-6416, FERMILAB-TM-2582, arXiv:1403.4427 (2014)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Lyons, L., Martin, A.J., Saxon, D.H.: On the determination of the B lifetime by combining the results of different experiments. Phys. Rev. D41, 982–985 (1990)ADSGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Lista, L.: The bias of the unbiased estimator: a study of the iterative application of the BLUE method. Nucl. Inst. Methods A764, 82–93 (2014) and corr. ibid. A773, 87–96 (2015)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Luca Lista
    • 1
  1. 1.INFN Sezione di NapoliNapoliItaly

Personalised recommendations