Finite Time Thermodynamics of Vapour Compression Refrigeration, Airconditioning and Heat Pump Cycles



The experimental observations show that heat cannot be transferred from low-temperature reservoir to high-temperature reservoir without external energy input or work. The device that extracts heat from low-temperature reservoir and rejects or transfers it to high-temperature reservoir is called refrigerator (or heat pump), and the cycle followed by the device or system is called refrigeration cycle. These devices are cyclic devices, and the fluid that flows in the device is known as refrigerant. Refrigerator and heat pump are essentially the same device and follow the same thermodynamic cycle, but they differ in their objective function. Removal of heat from the space which needs to be cooled and maintained at low temperature is the main objective of refrigerator, and rejecting this heat to a higher-temperature medium is a necessity of the operation, not the objective.


  1. Blanchard, C.H. (1980). Coefficient of performance for finite speed heat pump. J. Appl. Phys, 51(5), 2471–2472.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Carnot, S. (1824). Reflections on the Motive Power of Fire. Bachelier, Paris.Google Scholar
  3. Cengel, Y.A. and Boles, M.A. (2006). Thermodynamics. An Engineering approach. 5th edition. McGraw Hill.Google Scholar
  4. Chua, H.T., Ng, K.C. and Gordon, J.M. (1996). Experimental study of the fundamental properties of reciprocating chillers and their relation to thermodynamic modeling and chiller design. Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 39(11), 2195–2204.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Curzon, F.L. and Ahlborn, B. (1975). Efficiency of a Carnot engine at maximum power output. American Journal of Physics, 43, 22–24.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Davis, G.W. and Wu, C. (1997). Finite time analysis of a geothermal heat engine driven airconditioning system. Energy Conv. & Mgmt. 38(3), 263–268.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Holman, J.P. (1992). Heat Transfer 1963 (7th ed. in SI units, 1992). McGraw-Hill, ISBN 0-07-112644-9, 539–584.Google Scholar
  8. Kaushik, S.C. (1999). State-of-the-art on finite time thermodynamics. Internal Report CES, IIT Delhi, India.Google Scholar
  9. Kaushik, S.C., Kumar, P. and Jain, S. (2001). Finite Time Thermodynamic Optimisation of an Irreversible Heat Pump System Using the Lagrangian Multiplier Method. International Journal of Ambient Energy, 22(2), 105–112.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Kaushik, S.C., Kumar, P. and Jain, S. (2002b). Finite Time Optimization of Irreversible Airconditioning System Using Method of Lagrangian Multiplier Journal of Energy and Environment 2, 53–61.Google Scholar
  11. Kaushik, S.C., Bhardwaj, P.K. and Jain, S. (2002d). Finite Time Thermodynamics in Energy Conversion Processes. Published in National Conference on “Advances in Contemporary Physics and Energy-2002”, Feb. 8-9, IIT Delhi, New Delhi, India, 464–486.Google Scholar
  12. Kays, W.M. and London, A.L. (1964). Compact heat exchangers. Second edition, McGraw-Hill, New York.Google Scholar
  13. Kumar, P. (2002). Finite time thermodynamic analysis of refrigeration airconditioning and heat pump systems. Ph.D. Thesis, CES, IIT Delhi, India.Google Scholar
  14. Lee, W.Y. and Kim, S.S. (1992). Finite time optimization of a Rankine heat engine. Energy Conv. & Mgmt, 33(1), 59–67.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Leff, H.S. and Teeters, W.D. (1978). EER, COP and second law efficiency for airconditioner. Am. J. Phys, 41(1), 19–22.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Sonntag, R.E., Borgnakke, C. and Van Wylen, G.J. (1998). Fundamentals of thermodynamics. Fifth Edition. John Wiley & Sons Inc.Google Scholar
  17. Wu, C. (1993a). Cooling capacity optimization of a waste heat absorption refrigeration cycle. Heat Recovery Systems & CHP, 13(2), 161–166.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Wu, C. (1993b). Maximum cooling load of a heat-engine driven refrigerator. Energy Conv. & Mgmt, 34(8), 691–696.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Wu, C. (1993c). Performance of a solar-engine driven airconditioning system. Int. J. Ambient Energy. 14(2), 77–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Wu, C. (1993d). Specific heating load of an endoreversible Carnot heat pump. Int. J. Ambient Energy. 14(1), 25–28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Wu, C., Chen, L. and Sun, F. (1998a). Optimization of steady flow heat pumps. Energy Conv. & Mgmt, 39(5,6), 445–453.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Wu, C., Chen, L. and Sun, F. (1998b). Effect of heat transfer law on finite time exergoeconomic performance of Carnot heat pump. Energy Conv. & Mgmt, 39(7), 579–588.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Wu, C., Chen, L., Sun, F. and Cao, S. (1998c). Optimal collector temperature for solar driven heat pumps. Energy Conv. & Mgmt, 39(1–2), 143–147.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Capital Publishing Company, New Delhi, India 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Centre for Energy StudiesIndian Institute of TechnologyNew DelhiIndia
  2. 2.Solid State Physics Laboratory (SSPL)New DelhiIndia

Personalised recommendations