Cervical Cancer

Chapter

Abstract

This chapter will discuss the epidemiology, workup, staging, treatment recommendations, key studies and radiation treatment techniques for cervical cancer.

Keywords

Cervical cancer Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) Radiation treatment for cervical cancer 

Notes

Acknowledgment

We thank R. Scott Bermudez MD and Kim Huang MD for their work on the prior edition of this chapter.

References

  1. Charra-Brunaud C, Harter V, Delannes M, et al. Impact of 3D image-based PDR brachytherapy on outcome of pts treated for cervix carcinoma in France: results of the French STIC prospective study. Radiother Oncol. 2012;103(3):305–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Dueñas-González A, Zarbá JJ, Patel F, et al. Phase III, open-label, randomized study comparing concurrent gemcitabine plus cisplatin and radiation followed by adjuvant gemcitabine and cisplatin versus concurrent cisplatin and radiation in patients with stage IIB to IVA carcinoma of the cervix. J Clin Oncol. 2011;29(13):1678–85.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Edge S, Byrd DR, Compton CC, Fritz AG, Greene FL, Trotti A. AJCC cancer staging handbook. New York: Springer; 2011.Google Scholar
  4. Eifel PJ, Winter K, Morris M, et al. Pelvic irradiation with concurrent chemotherapy versus pelvic and para-aortic irradiation for high-risk cervical cancer: an update of radiation therapy oncology group trial (RTOG) 90-01. J Clin Oncol. 2004;22:872–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Garland SM, Steben M, Sings HL, et al. Natural history of genital warts: analysis of the placebo arm of 2 randomized phase III trials of a quadrivalent human papillomavirus (types 6, 11, 16, and 18) vaccine. J Infect Dis. 2009;199(6):805–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Gill BS, Lin JF, Krivak TC, et al. National Cancer Data Base analysis of radiation therapy consolidation modality for cervical cancer: the impact of new technological advancements. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2014;90(5):1083–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Haie-Meder C, Pötter R, Van Limbergen E, et al. Recommendations from Gynaecological (GYN) GEC-ESTRO Working Group (I): concepts and terms in 3D image based 3D treatment planning in cervix cancer brachytherapy with emphasis on MRI assessment of GTV and CTV. Radiother Oncol. 2005;74(3):235–45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Han K, Milosevic M, Fyles A, Pintilie M, Viswanathan AN. Trends in the utilization of brachytherapy in cervical cancer in the United States. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2013;87(1):111–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Hanks GE, Herring DF, Kramer S. Patterns of care outcome studies. Results of the national practice in cancer of the cervix. Cancer. 1983;51(5):959–67.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Hsu IJ, Swift PS. Cancer of the uterine cervix. In: Leibel SA, Phillips TL, editors. Textbook of radiation oncology. 3rd ed. Philadelphia: Saunders; 2010. p. 1002–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Keys HM, Bundy BN, Stehman FB, et al. Cisplatin, radiation, and adjuvant hysterectomy compared with radiation and adjuvant hysterectomy for bulky stage IB cervical carcinoma. N Engl J Med. 1999;340:1154–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Keys HM, Bundy BN, Stehman FB, et al. Radiation therapy with and without extrafascial hysterectomy for bulky stage IB cervical carcinoma: a randomized trial of the gynecologic oncology group. Gynecol Oncol. 2003;89:343–53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Lanciano RM, Martz K, Coia LR, Hanks GE. Tumor and treatment factors improving outcome in stage III-B cervix cancer. Radiat Oncol Biol. 1991;20(1):95–100.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Lanciano R, Calkins A, Bundy BN, et al. Randomized comparison of weekly cisplatin or protracted venous infusion of fluorouracil in combination with pelvic radiation in advanced cervix cancer: a gynecologic oncology group study. J Clin Oncol. 2005;23:8289–95.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Landoni F, Maneo A, Colombo A, et al. Randomised study of radical surgery versus radiotherapy for stage Ib-IIa cervical cancer. Lancet. 1997;350:535–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Lee LJ, Das IJ, Higgins SA, et al. American Brachytherapy Society consensus guidelines for locally advanced carcinoma of the cervix. Part III: low-dose-rate and pulsed-dose-rate brachytherapy. Brachytherapy. 2012;11:53–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Lim K, Small W Jr, Portelance L, et al. Consensus guidelines for delineation of clinical target volume for intensity-modulated pelvic radiotherapy for the definitive treatment of cervix cancer. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2011;79:348–55.Google Scholar
  18. Logsdon MD, Eifel PJ. Figo IIIB squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix: an analysis of prognostic factors emphasizing the balance between external beam and intracavitary radiation therapy. Radiat Oncol Biol. 1999;43(4):763–75.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Mayadev J, Viswanathan A, Liu Y, et al. American Brachytherapy Task Group Report: a pooled analysis of clinical outcomes for high-dose-rate brachytherapy for cervical cancer. Brachytherapy. 2017;16:22–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Monk BJ, Wang J, Im S, et al. Rethinking the use of radiation and chemotherapy after radical hysterectomy: a clinical-pathologic analysis of a Gynecologic Oncology Group/Southwest Oncology Group/Radiation Therapy Oncology Group trial. Gynecol Oncol. 2005;96(3):721–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Montana GS, Fowler WC, Varia MA, Walton LA, Mack Y, Shemanski L. Carcinoma of the cervix, stage III. Results of radiation therapy. Cancer. 1986;57(1):148–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Morris M, Eifel PJ, Lu J, et al. Pelvic radiation with concurrent chemotherapy compared with pelvic and para-aortic radiation for high-risk cervical cancer. N Engl J Med. 1999;340:1137–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. National Cancer Institute Surveillance. Epidemiology, and End Results Program (SEER). 2016. http://seer.cancer.gov/statfacts/html/corp.html. Accessed 22 Aug 2016.
  24. National Comprehensive Cancer Network. Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology: Cervical Cancer (Version 1.2016). 2016. https://www.nccn.org/professionals/physician_gls/pdf/cervical.pdf. Accessed 27 Aug 2016.
  25. PDQ Screening and Prevention Editorial Board. Cervical Cancer Screening (PDQ®): Health Professional Version. 4 Mar 2016.Google Scholar
  26. Pearcey R, Brundage M, Drouin P, et al. Phase III trial comparing radical radiotherapy with and without cisplatin chemotherapy in pts with advanced squamous cell cancer of the cervix. J Clin Oncol. 2002;20:966–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Peters WA III, Liu PY, Barrett RJ II, et al. Concurrent chemotherapy and pelvic radiation therapy compared with pelvic radiation therapy alone as adjuvant therapy after radical surgery in high-risk early-stage cancer of the cervix. J Clin Oncol. 2000;18:1606–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Pötter R, Haie-Meder C, Van Limbergen E, et al. Recommendations from gynaecological (GYN) GEC ESTRO working group (II): concepts and terms in 3D image-based treatment planning in cervix cancer brachytherapy-3D dose volume parameters and aspects of 3D image-based anatomy, radiation physics, radiobiology. Radiother Oncol. 2006;78(1):67–77.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Rose PG, Bundy BN, Watkins EB, et al. Concurrent cisplatin-based radiotherapy and chemotherapy for locally advanced cervical cancer. N Engl J Med. 1999;340:1144–53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Rose PG, Ali S, Watkins E, et al. Long-term follow-up of a randomized trial comparing concurrent single agent cisplatin, cisplatin-based combination chemotherapy, or hydroxyurea during pelvic irradiation for locally advanced cervical cancer: a gynecologic oncology group study. J Clin Oncol. 2007;25:2804–10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Rose PG, Java J, Whitney CW, et al. Nomograms Predicting Progression-Free Survival, Overall Survival, and Pelvic Recurrence in Locally Advanced Cervical Cancer Developed From an Analysis of Identifiable Prognostic Factorsin Patients From NRG Oncology/Gynecologic Oncology Group Randomized Trials of Chemoradiotherapy. J Clin Oncol. 2015;33:2136–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Rotman M, Pajak TF, Choi K, et al. Prophylactic extended-field irradiation of para-aortic lymph nodes in stages IIB and bulky IB and IIA cervical carcinomas. Ten-yr treatment results of RTOG 79-20. JAMA. 1995;274:387–93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Rotman M, Sedlis A, Piedmonte MR, et al. A phase III randomized trial of postoperative pelvic irradiation in stage IB cervical carcinoma with poor prognostic features: follow-up of a gynecologic oncology group study. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2006;65:169–76.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Ryu S-Y, Lee W-M, Kim K, et al. Randomized clinical trial of weekly vs. triweekly cisplatin-based chemotherapy concurrent with radiotherapy in the treatment of locally advanced cervical cancer. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2011;81(4):e577–81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Sedlis A, Bundy BN, Rotman MZ, et al. A randomized trial of pelvic radiation therapy versus no further therapy in selected pts with stage IB carcinoma of the cervix after radical hysterectomy and pelvic lymphadenectomy: a gynecologic oncology group study. Gynecol Oncol. 1999;73:177–83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. SEER Cancer Statistics Review, 1975–2012. National Cancer Institute. 2016. http://seer.cancer.gov/archive/csr/1975_2012/results_merged/sect_05_cervix_uteri.pdf. Accessed 26 Aug 2016.
  37. Serrano B, Alemany L, Tous S, et al. Potential impact of a nine-valent vaccine in human papillomavirus related cervical disease. Infect Agent Cancer. 2012;7(1):38.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Stehman FB, Ali S, Keys HM, et al. Radiation therapy with or without weekly cisplatin for bulky stage 1B cervical carcinoma: follow-up of a gynecologic oncology group trial. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2007;197(5):503.e1–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Suneja G, Brown D, Chang A, et al. American Brachytherapy Society: brachytherapy treatment recommendations for locally advanced cervix cancer for low-income and middle-income countries. Brachytherapy. 2017;16:85–94.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. The American Cancer Society guidelines for the prevention and early detection of cervical cancer. 2016. http://www.cancer.org/cancer/cervicalcancer/moreinformation/cervicalcancerpreventionandearlydetection/cervical-cancer-prevention-and-early-detection-cervical-cancer-screening-guidelines. Accessed 26 Aug 2016.
  41. Vargo JA, Kim H, CHOI S, et al. Extended field intensity modulated radiation therapy with concomitant boost for lymph node-positive cervical cancer: analysis of regional control and recurrence patterns in the positron emission tomography/computed tomography era. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2014;90(5):1091–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Viswanathan AN and Thomadsen B. American Brachytherapy Society consensus guidelines for locally advanced carcinoma of the cervix. Part I: general principles. Brachytherapy. 2012;11:33–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Viswanathan AN, Beriwal S, De Los Santos JF, et al. American Brachytherapy Society consensus guidelines for locally advanced carcinoma of the cervix. Part II: high-dose-rate brachytherapy. Brachytherapy. 2012;11:47–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Viswanathan AN. Uterine cervix. In: Halperin CE, Wazer DE, Perez CA, Brady LW, editors. Principles and practice of radiation oncology. 6th ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2013. p. 1355–425.Google Scholar
  45. Viswanathan AN, Erickson B, Gaffney DK, et al. Comparison and consensus guidelines for delineation of clinical target volume for CT- and MR-based brachytherapy in locally advanced cervical cancer. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2014;90(2):320–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Viswanathan AN, Dizon DS, Gien LT, Koh W. Cervical cancer. In: Gunderson LL, Tepper JE, editors. Clinical radiation oncology. 4th ed. Philadelphia: Churchill Livingstone; 2015. p. 1173–1202.e6.Google Scholar
  47. Wang C-C, Lai C-H, Huang Y-T, Chao A, Chou H-H, Hong J-H. HPV genotypes predict survival benefits from concurrent chemotherapy and radiation therapy in advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2012;84(4):e499–506.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Whitney CW, Sause W. Randomized comparison of fluorouracil plus Cisplatin versus Hydroxyurea as an adjunct to radiation therapy in stage IIB-IVA carcinoma of the cervix with negative para-aortic lymph nodes: a gynecologic oncology group and southwest oncology group study. 1999:1137-1143. J Clin Oncol. 1999;17(5):1339–48.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Radiation OncologyUniversity of California San FranciscoSan FranciscoUSA

Personalised recommendations