Advertisement

Securitization and Desecuritization Dynamics in the Aceh Separatist Movement

Chapter
  • 252 Downloads

Abstract

In this chapter, I examine the case of Aceh during Indonesia’s democratic transition to explore how the dynamics of securitization and desecuritization occurred in the face of the separatist movement. This conflict was the longest separatist movement in the history of independent Indonesia. Altogether, the Acehnese liberation struggle lasted for forty years. In terms of fatalities, the case of Aceh demonstrated a high level of violence; during the whole period, between 10,000 and 30,000 people were killed (Crisis Management Initiative 2012: 9; Amnesty International 2013: 9; Pergub Aceh No. 70/2012: 62).

Bibliography

  1. Acharya, A. 2009. Constructing a Security Community in Southeast Asia: ASEAN and the Problem of Regional Order. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  2. Ali, F., S. Monoarfa, and B. Effendy. 2008. Kalla dan Perdamaian Aceh. Jakarta: LSPEU.Google Scholar
  3. Amnesty International. 2013. Time to Face the Past: Justice for Past Abuses in Indonesia’s Aceh Province. London: Amnesty International Ltd.Google Scholar
  4. Aspinall, E. 2005. The Helsinki Agreement: A More Promising Basis for Peace in Aceh?. Policy Studies, vol. 20, Washington, DC: East-West Center Washington.Google Scholar
  5. Aspinall, E., and H. Crouch. 2003. The Aceh Peace Process: Why It failed. Policy Studies, vol. 1. Washington, DC: East-West Center Washington.Google Scholar
  6. Barber, R., ed. 2000. Aceh: The Untold Story. Bangkok: Asian Forum for Human Rights and Development.Google Scholar
  7. Bhakti, I.N. 2008. Beranda perdamaian: Catatan pendahuluan. In Beranda Perdamaian: Aceh Tiga Tahun Pasca MoU Helsinki, ed. I.N. Bhakti. Jakarta: P2P-LIPI.Google Scholar
  8. Bhakti, I.N., S. Yanuarti, and M. Nurhasim. 2009. Military Politics, Ethnicity and Conflict in Indonesia. CRISE Working Paper 62. Oxford: University of Oxford and DFID.Google Scholar
  9. Crisis Management Initiative. 2012. Aceh Peace Process Follow-Up Project: Final Report.Google Scholar
  10. Drexler, E.F. 2007. The Social Life of Conflict Narratives: Violent Antagonists, Imagined Histories, and Foreclosed Futures in Aceh, Indonesia. Anthropological Quarterly 80 (4): 961–995.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Elson, R.E. 2008. The Idea of Indonesia: A History. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  12. Finer, S.E. 1962. The Man on the Horseback: The Role of the Military in Politics. Santa Barbara: Preager.Google Scholar
  13. Hansen, L. 2011. Reconstructing Desecuritisation: The Normative-Political in the Copenhagen School and Direction for How to Apply It. Review of International Studies 38: 1–22.Google Scholar
  14. Husein, F. 2007. To See the Unseen: Scenes Behind the Aceh Peace Treaty. Jakarta: Health & Hospital Indonesia.Google Scholar
  15. Huysmans, J. 1998. The Question of the Limit: Desecuritisation and the Aesthetics of Horror in Political Realism. Millennium – Journal of International Studies 27 (3): 569–589.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Janowitz, M. 1977. Military Institutions and Coercion in the Developing Nations: The Military in the Political Development of New Nations. Chicago: Chicago University Press.Google Scholar
  17. Kell, T. 1995. The Roots of Aceh Rebellion 1989–1992. Cornel: Cornell Southeast Asia Program Publications.Google Scholar
  18. Koonings, K., and D. Kruijt. 2002. Introduction. In Political Armies: The Military and Nation Building in the Age of Democracy, ed. K. Koonings and D. Kruijt. London and New York: Zed Books.Google Scholar
  19. Makarim, N.A. 2005. Under-Governance and Conflict. In Violent Internal Conflicts in Asia Pacific: Histories, Political Economies and Policies, ed. D.F. Anwar, H. Bouvier, G. Smith, and R. Tol. Jakarta: Yayasan Obor Indonesia, LIPI, Lasema-CNRS, KITLV-Jakarta.Google Scholar
  20. Mietzner, M. 2006. The Politics of Military Reform in Post-Suharto Indonesia: Elite Conflict, Nationalism, and Institutional Resistance. Policy Studies, vol. 23. Washington, DC: East-West Center.Google Scholar
  21. ———. 2009. Military Politics Islam, and the State in Indonesia: From Turbulent Transition to Democratic Consolidation. Singapore: ISEAS.Google Scholar
  22. Miller, M.A. 2009. Rebellion and Reform in Indonesia: Jakarta Security and Autonomy Policies in Aceh. London/New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  23. Nainggolan, P.P. 2011. The Indonesian Military Response to Reform in Democratic Transition: A Comparative Analysis of Three Civilian Regimes 1998–2004. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Freiburg.Google Scholar
  24. Nurhasim, M. 2008. Perundingan Helsinki: Jalan panjang menuju damai Aceh. In Beranda Perdamaian: Aceh Tiga Tahun Pasca MoU Helsinki, ed. I.N. Bhakti. Jakarta: P2P-LIPI.Google Scholar
  25. Oelsner, A. 2005. (De)securitisation Theory and Regional Peace: Some Theoretical Reflections and a Case Study on the Way to Stable Peace. Working Paper RSCAS 2005/27. Badia Fiesolana: European University Institute.Google Scholar
  26. Pérez, J.G. 2009. Lessons of Peace in Aceh: Administrative Decentralization and Political Freedom as Strategy of Pacification in Aceh. ICIP Working Papers 9. Barcelona: Institut Català Internacional per la Pau.Google Scholar
  27. Rabasa, A., and J. Haseman. 2002. The Military and Democracy in Indonesia: Challenges, Politics, and Power. Santa Monica: Rand Corporation.Google Scholar
  28. Reid, A. 2004. War, Peace and the Burden of History in Aceh. Asian Ethnicity 5: 301–314.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Rüland, J. 2014. Constructing Regionalism Domestically: Local Actors and Foreign Policymaking in Newly Democratized Indonesia. Foreign Policy Analysis 10 (2): 181–201.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Schulze, K.E. 2003. The Struggle for an Independent Aceh: The Ideology. Capacity and Strategy of GAM, Studies in Conflict and Terrorism 26: 241–271.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. ———. 2004. The Free Aceh Movement (GAM): Anatomy of a Separatist Organization. Policy Studies, vol. 2. Washington, DC: East-West Center Washington.Google Scholar
  32. Sujatmiko, I.G. 2012. Conflict Transformation and Social Reconciliation: The Case of Aceh, Indonesia. Asian Social Science 8 (2): 104–111.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Sukma, R. 2004. Security Operations in Aceh: Goals, Consequences, and Lessons. Policy Studies, vol. 3. Washington, DC: East-West Center Washington.Google Scholar
  34. ———. 2007. Resolving the Aceh Conflict: The Helsinki Peace Agreement. Background Paper 4a.Google Scholar
  35. Sukma, R., and E. Prasetyono. 2003. Security Sector Reform in Indonesia: The Military and the Police. Working Paper 9. The Hague: Netherlands Institute of International Relations ‘Clingendel’.Google Scholar
  36. Tiwon, S. 2000. From East Timor to Aceh: The Disintegration of Indonesia? Bulletin of Concerned Asian Scholars 32 (1–2): 97–104.Google Scholar
  37. Widjajanto, A. 2007a. Transforming Indonesia’s Armed Forces. UNISCI Discussion Papers 15.Google Scholar
  38. ———. 2007b. Agenda reformasi militer Indonesia. Bahan Pengajaran Strategi Pertahanan Indonesia, Departemen Ilmu Hubungan Internasional, FISIP-UI.Google Scholar
  39. ———. 2010. Evolusi doktrin pertahanan Indonesia. Prisma 29 (1): 3–20.Google Scholar
  40. Yamin, K. 2003. Jakarta Offensive in Aceh Drags on. Asia Times Online, June 27.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of International RelationsUniversity of IndonesiaJawa BaratIndonesia

Personalised recommendations