Securitization Theory: A Theoretical Framework



Studies on security and conflict in Indonesia have largely relied on culturalists (those who “emphasize the causal and constitutive role of cultural processes and systems of signification”) and objectivists (those who see “a homogeneous form of human subjectivity across time and space”) traditions (Steinmetz 1999). The works of culturalists usually cover a longer period, not only focusing on the decisive moment of the conflict. For them, violent conflicts are the end result of long-term social dynamics, and their theoretical approaches to Indonesia’s violent conflicts—among others—are: social psychology (Colombijn 2002; Collins 2002), collective-behavioral (Suryadinata et al. 2003: xxiii, 178; Bubandt 2004; Kreuzer 2002), and historical-cultural (Surata and Andrianto 2001; Sutirto 2000; Warnaen 2002; Abdilah 2002; Trijono 2004; Bartels 2003; Smith 2005; Good and Good 2001). Their analyses of the subject at hand can be summarized into three general conclusions. First, the culture of violence is embedded in Indonesian society. Second, the objective reality of ethnic and religious diversity is perceived as latent sources of threat. Third, modernization and development—the New Order’s cardinal rhetoric—have damaged social and cultural bonds within the society. Hence, it leads to the outbreak of violent conflicts. From culturalists we learn how to conduct a long-term observation on certain social phenomena. And, from their literature we learn more about social psychology and the creation of meaning in a society.


Securitization Theory Desecuritization Securitizing Actors Copenhagen School Democracy Transition 
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© The Author(s) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of International RelationsUniversity of IndonesiaJawa BaratIndonesia

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