Umbilicus Types and Shapes

  • Mohamed Fahmy


The umbilicus embryologically represents the neck of the bottle, which contains the umbilical vessels and structures related to the digestive and urinary systems. After the fall of the umbilical stump, a few days after birth, its scarred tissue remains as the belly button, which is considered a mirror of the abdomen and should be carefully checked, particularly for newborns. A basic understanding of its anatomy and embryology is essential to identify and manage its disorders. Investigating the abnormal conditions at the umbilicus is crucial, because corrective surgical interventions may be required and conducted as soon as possible.

The umbilicus also represents a relatively weak point in the anterior abdominal wall that is prone to herniation or bulging as a result of increased intra-abdominal pressure. Moreover, most abnormal conditions observed at the umbilicus are attributed to developmental disorders. Thus, focusing on the development of the umbilicus and its congenital anomalies and correlating these conditions with clinical findings are necessary, and also types and shapes of the umbilicus and its position had some clinical correlations.


Innie Outie Mamelon Umbilical ring Umbilical venous catheterization Transumbilical endoscopic surgery 


  1. 1.
    Bert A, Charles Y. Etude sur la morphologic de l’ombilic. Compt. rend, de l’assoc. des anatomistes. 104, vi, 116.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Cullen TS. Anatomy of the umbilical region. In: Cullen TS, editor. Embryology, anatomy, and disease of the umbilicus together with diseases of the Urachus. Philadelphia: WB Saunders; 1916. p. 34–89.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Yu D, Novicoff WM, Gampper TJ. The average size and position of the umbilicus in young men and women. Ann Plast Surg. 2016;76(3):346–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Abbas H, Guneren E, Eroglu LO, Uysal A. A natural looking umbilicus as an important part of abdominoplasty. Aesthet Plast Surg. 2003;27:139.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Shinohara H, Matsuo K, Kikuchi N. Umbilical reconstruction with an inverted C-V flap. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2000;105:703–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Lee SL, DuBois JJ, Greenholz SK, et al. Advancement flap umbilicoplasty after abdominal wall closure: postoperative results compared with normal umbilical anatomy. J Pediatr Surg. 2001;36:1168–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Tsukahara M, Fernandez GI. Umbilical findings in Aarskog syndrome. Clin Genet. 1994;45:260–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Shephard BD, Shephard CA. The complete guide to Women’s health. Tampa: Mariner Publishing; 1982. p. 419. Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mohamed Fahmy
    • 1
  1. 1.Pediatric SurgeryAl Azher University Pediatric SurgeryCairoEgypt

Personalised recommendations