Physiology, Ultrastructure, Ultrasonography and Pharmacology of the Umbilical Cord

  • Mohamed Fahmy


The complexity of umbilical cord built has long been of interest to anatomists. A look at all mammals shows a variety of design adaptations. In humans, it has been determined that there are several designs.What these differences mean to the fetusis unknown.Attempts by several scientists to understand how the umbilical cord works have taught us thatthe cord is more like an organ rather than a rigid conduit (pipeline). Not all cords are alike. Just as there are different kinds of hair (curly/straight, thick/thin), there are different kinds of cords.


Wharton’s jelly Cord design Velamentous insertions Bifurcated Cord design Spiral turns Helical configuration and single umbilical artery 


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© Springer International Publishing AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mohamed Fahmy
    • 1
  1. 1.Pediatric SurgeryAl Azher University Pediatric SurgeryCairoEgypt

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