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Lung/Pleural Injuries

  • Chiara Moroni
  • Alessandra Bindi
  • Edoardo Cavigli
  • Diletta Cozzi
  • Monica Marina Lanzetta
  • Peiman Nazerian
  • Vittorio Miele
Chapter

Abstract

Thoracic trauma account for about 25% of all trauma deaths and may produce injuries to endothoracic organs that play a vital role in normal physiology and homeostasis; some injuries to the chest and its contents, if unrecognized or untreated, may produce death within minutes. In the diagnostic algorithm of thoracic trauma, clinical data are of extreme importance and must be well recognized by the emergency physician. But, because of the low specificity of most of them consisting mainly in dyspnea, cough, hemoptysis, chest pain and, in very critical cases, in severe hypoxia or shock, imaging plays an essential role in the diagnostic work-up of these events permitting in most cases a fast and definite diagnosis and, therefore, a prompt adequate treatment. In an emergency context, three imaging modalities are helpful in the diagnosis of a thoracic trauma: chest X-ray, ultrasound (US) examination, and multidetector computed tomography (MDCT). Chest plain film and US examination play an important role in the initial emergency work-up of post-traumatic thoracic injuries as they are cheap and bedside available. Actually, MDCT has established itself as the preferred imaging method for the evaluation of polytrauma patients. This chapter will consider the main pleural and lung lesions and the injuries caused by open trauma.

Keywords

Trauma Trauma imaging Pneumothorax Hemothorax Lung injuries Open trauma Computed tomography (CT) Chest X-ray (CXR) Thoracic ultrasound (US) 

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Chiara Moroni
    • 1
  • Alessandra Bindi
    • 1
  • Edoardo Cavigli
    • 1
  • Diletta Cozzi
    • 1
  • Monica Marina Lanzetta
    • 1
  • Peiman Nazerian
    • 2
  • Vittorio Miele
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of RadiologyCareggi University HospitalFlorenceItaly
  2. 2.Department of Emergency MedicineCareggi Univeristy HospitalFlorenceItaly

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