Encapsulation of Hydrophilic and Lipophilic Compounds in Nanosomes Produced with a Supercritical Based Process

  • Paolo Trucillo
  • Roberta CampardelliEmail author
  • Ernesto Reverchon
Part of the Lecture Notes in Bioengineering book series (LNBE)


Liposomes are created when phospholipids self-assemble in an aqueous medium creating spherical closed structures. These vesicles can be loaded with hydrophilic active principles (AP) into the aqueous inner core or with lipophilic compounds in the lipidic double layer. In this work a new supercritical based process for the one-step continuous production of nanosomes is proposed for the encapsulation of hydrophilic and lipophilic compounds. This process is called Supercritical Assisted Liposome Formation (SuperLip). The innovation of this process consists in the inversion of the traditional phases of production of liposomes: water droplets are created by a spray atomization in a high pressure vessel, and then a double layer of phospholipids fast surrounds them. A systematic study on liposome size, morphology, encapsulation efficiency has been performed for several different hydrophilic AP (ampicillin, ofloxacin, bovine serum albumin, fluorescein, eugenol and theophylline). Some operative parameters were also optimized to achieve the production of nanometric liposomes with high encapsulation efficiencies. Operating in this way nanometric and monodispersed liposome suspensions were produced with EE up to 99%. To complete the study, other lipidic compounds were entrapped in the double lipidic layer, obtaining high entrapment efficiencies (TE), also in this case, up to 84.9%.


Liposomes Drug carriers Supercritical fluids 



Active Principles


Encapsulation Efficiency


Formation Vessel




Separation Step


Dynamic Light Scattering


Mean Diameter


Standard Deviation


Entrapment Efficiency


Scanning Electron Microscope


Transmission Electron Microscopy




Particle Size Distributions



The authors want to acknowledge Annabella Bruno, Marina Iorio, Luca Vitale and Daniela Apicella for their kind help with SuperLip process during their thesis projects.


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Industrial EngineeringUniversity of SalernoFiscianoItaly

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