Advertisement

Critiquing Moral Panic

  • Sarah Wright MonodEmail author
Chapter
  • 1.1k Downloads
Part of the Palgrave Studies in Risk, Crime and Society book series (PSRCS)

Abstract

Examines and evaluates the nature of the critiques directed at moral panic since its inception and the responses to these by Cohen (Folk devils and moral panics, London, Routledge, 2002) and other panic scholars. It explores, for example, the view of panic as a normative assessment made by left-leaning academics; the claim that folk devils can fight back; and the charge that the model of panic is too blunt to capture the complexities of risk-focused anxieties. This chapter also considers, in brief, the impact of new media ecosystem on panic development, whether the public should be a variable in research and why context matters. This chapter concludes with a discussion of some implications of the critiques for panic research.

Keywords

Folk Devils Panic Scholars Media Ecosystem Pan Development Fight Back 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. Aldridge, M. (2003). The ties that divide: Regional press campaigns, community and populism. Media, Culture and Society, 25(4), 491–509. doi: 10.1177/01634437030254004.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Altheide, D. (2002). Creating fear: News and the construction of crisis. New York: Aldine de Gruyter.Google Scholar
  3. Althusser, L. (1971). Ideology and the ideological state apparatuses. In B. Brewster (Ed.), Lenin and philosophy and other essays (pp. 127–186). London: New Left Books.Google Scholar
  4. Anderson, B. (1983). Imagined communities: Reflection on the origin and spread of nationalism. London, UK: Verso.Google Scholar
  5. Bauman, Z. (2000). Liquid modernity. Cambridge, UK: Polity Press; Malden, MA: Blackwell.Google Scholar
  6. Beck, U. (1992). Risk society: Towards a new modernity. London: Sage.Google Scholar
  7. Becker, H. (1998). Tricks of the trade: How to think about research while you are doing it. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press. Google Scholar
  8. Best, J. (1993). But seriously folks: The limitations of the strict constructionist interpretation of social problems. In G. Miller & J. A. Holstein (Eds.), Constructionist controversies: Issues in social problems theory (pp. 109–130). New York: Aldine de Gruyter.Google Scholar
  9. Best, J. (2008). Social problems. New York: Norton.Google Scholar
  10. Best, J. (2011). Locating moral panics within the sociology of social problems. In S. Hier (Ed.), Moral panic and the politics of anxiety (pp. 37–52). Milton Park: Routledge.Google Scholar
  11. Brisman, A., & South, N. (2015). New “Folk Devils”, denials and climate change: Applying the work of stanley cohen to green criminology and environmental harm. Critical Criminology, 23(4), 449–460. doi: 10.1007/s10612-015-9288-1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Burns, R., & Crawford, C. (1999). School shootings, the media, and public fear. Ingredients for a moral panic. Crime, Law and Social Change, 32, 147–168.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Cohen, A. (1974). The elasticity of evil: Changes in the social definition of deviance. Oxford: Basil Blackwell.Google Scholar
  14. Cohen, S. (1972). Folk devils and moral panics. Herts: Paladin.Google Scholar
  15. Cohen, S. (2002). Folk devils and moral panics (3rd ed.). London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  16. Cohen, S. (2011). Whose side were we on? The undeclared politics of moral panic theory. Crime, Media, Culture, 7(3), 237–243.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Cooper, A., & Whittaker, A. (2014). History as tragedy, never as farce: Tracing the long cultural narrative of child protection in England. Journal of Social Work Practice, 28(3), 251–266.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Critcher, C. (2000). “Still raving”: Social reaction to ecstasy. Leisure Studies, 19(3), 145–162. doi: 10.1080/02614360050023053.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Critcher, C. (2003). Moral panics and the media. Buckingham: Open University Press.Google Scholar
  20. Critcher, C. (Ed.). (2006). Critical readings: Moral panics and the media. Berkshire: Open University Press.Google Scholar
  21. Critcher, C. (2008). Moral panic analysis: Past, present and future. Sociology Compass, 2(4), 1127–1144.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Critcher, C. (2009a). Widening the focus: Moral panics as moral regulation. British Journal of Criminology, 49, 17–34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Critcher, C. (2009b, November). Onto the highway or up a cul-de-sac? The future destination of moral panic analysis. Presented at the Special research seminar on moral panics, Department of Sociology and Communications, School of Social Sciences, Brunel University, London, England.Google Scholar
  24. Critcher, C. (2011). For a political economy of moral panics. Crime, Media, Culture, 7(3), 259–275.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. David, M., Rohloff, A., Petley, J., & Hughes, J. (2011). The idea of moral panic—ten dimensions of dispute. Crime, Media, Culture, 7(3), 215–228.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. de Young, M. (2000). “The devil goes abroad”: The export of the ritual abuse moral panic. In British criminology conference: Selected proceedings (Vol. 3).Google Scholar
  27. de Young, M. (2004). The day care ritual abuse moral panic. Jefferson, NC: McFarland.Google Scholar
  28. de Young, M. (2008). The day care ritual abuse moral panic: A sociological analysis. Sociology Compass, 2(6), 1719–1733.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. de Young, M. (2011). Folk devils reconsidered. In S. Hier (Ed.), Moral panic and the politics of anxiety (pp. 118–133). London, England: Routledge.Google Scholar
  30. Drotner, K. (1999). Dangerous media? Panic discourses and dilemmas of modernity. Paedagogica Historica: International Journal of the History of Education, 35(3), 593–619.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Durkheim, E. (1984). The division of labour in society (W. D. Halls, Trans.). London, England: MacMillan.Google Scholar
  32. Erikson, K. (1966). Wayward puritans. New York: Macmillan.Google Scholar
  33. Furedi, F. (1997). The culture of fear: Risking taking and the morality of low expectations. London, England: Cassell.Google Scholar
  34. Furedi, F. (2013, February 12). The 20th anniversary of James Bulger’s death: A tragic episode and its shameful legacy. The Independent. United Kingdom. Retrieved from http://www.independent.co.uk/voices/comment.
  35. Garland, D. (2001). The culture of control. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  36. Garland, D. (2008). On the concept of moral panic. Crime, Media, Culture, 4, 9–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Giddens, A. (1990). The consequences of modernity. Cambridge: Polity Press.Google Scholar
  38. Giddens, A. (1991). Modernity and self-identity. Self and society in the late modern age. Cambridge: Polity Press.Google Scholar
  39. Glassner, B. (2006). The culture of fear: Why Americans are afraid of the wrong things; [crime, drugs, minorities, teen moms, killer kids, mutant microbes, plane crashes, road rage, & so much more]. New York, NY: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  40. Goode, E. (2008). Moral panics and disproportionality: The case of LSD use in the sixties. Deviant Behaviour, 29, 533–543.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Goode, E. (2012, November). The moral panic: Dead or alive? Seminar presented at the Revisiting moral panics: Moral panics and the family, University of Edinburgh.Google Scholar
  42. Goode, E., & Ben-Yehuda, N. (1994a). Moral panics: The social construction of deviance. Oxford, England: Blackwell.Google Scholar
  43. Goode, E., & Ben-Yehuda, N. (1994b). Moral panics: Culture, politics, and social construction. Annual Review of Sociology, 20, 149–171.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Green, D. A. (2008). When children kill children: Penal populism and political culture. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Greer, C. (2004). Crime, media and community: Grief and virtual engagement in late modernity. Cultural criminology unleashed (pp. 109–118). London, England: Cavendish.Google Scholar
  46. Hall, S., Critcher, C., Jefferson, T., Clarke, J., & Roberts, B. (1978). Policing the crisis: Mugging, the state, and law and order. London: MacMillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Hay, C. (1995). Mobilisation through interpellation. Social and Legal Studies, 4, 197–223.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Hay, C. (1996). Narrating crisis: The discursive construction of the “winter of discontent”. Sociology, 30(2), 253–277.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Healy, G. (2014, January 13). Newtown: The moral panic that wasn’t. Washington Examiner. Washington. Retrieved from http://www.washingtonexaminer.com/newtown-the-moral-panic-that-wasnt/article/2542105#!
  50. Hier, S. (2002a). Conceptualizing moral panic thought a moral economy of harm. Critical Sociology, 28(3), 311–334.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Hier, S. (2002b). Raves, risk, and the ecstasy panic: A case study in the subversive nature of moral regulation. Canadian Journal of Sociology, 27(1), 33–59.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Hier, S. (2003). Risk and panic in the late modernity: Implications of the converging sties of social anxiety. British Journal of Criminology, 54(1), 2–20.Google Scholar
  53. Hier, S. (2008). Thinking beyond moral panic: Risk, responsibility, and the politics of moralization. Theoretical Criminology, 12(1), 73–190.Google Scholar
  54. Hier, S. (2011). Tightening the focus: moral panic, moral regulation and liberal government: Tightening the focus. The British Journal of Sociology, 62(3), 523–541. doi: 10.1111/j.1468-4446.2011.01377.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Hier, S. (2016a). Good moral panics? Normative ambivalence, social reaction, and coexisting responsibilities in everyday life. Current Sociology, 001139211665546. doi:  10.1177/0011392116655463.
  56. Hier, S. (2016b). Moral panic, moral regulation, and the civilizing process: Moral panic, moral regulation, and the civilizing process. The British Journal of Sociology, 67(3), 414–434. doi: 10.1111/1468-4446.12201.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Hilgartner, S., & Bosk, C. L. (1988). The rise and fall of social problems: A public arenas model. American Journal of Sociology, 94(1), 53–78.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Hill, M. (2005). The “satanism scare” in New Zealand: The Christchurch Civic Creche case. In A. Kirkman & P. Moloney (Eds.), Sexulality down under (pp. 97–113). Dunedin: Otago University Press.Google Scholar
  59. Holloway, W., & Jefferson, T. (1997). The risk society in an age of anxiety. British Journal of Sociology, 48, 255–266.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Hunt, A. (2011). Fractious rivals? Moral panics and moral regulation. In S. Hier (Ed.), Moral panic and the politics of anxiety (pp. 53–70). Milton Park: Routledge.Google Scholar
  61. Jefferson, T. (2008). Policing the crisis revisited: The state, masculinity, fear of crime, and racism. Crime, Media, Culture, 4(1), 113–121.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Jenkins, P. (1992). Intimate enemies: Moral panics in contemporary Britain. New York: Aldine de Gruyter.Google Scholar
  63. Jenkins, P. (1998). Moral panic: Changing concepts of the child molestor in modern America. New Haven: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  64. Jenkins, P. (2009). Failure to launch: Why do some social issues fail to detonate moral panics? British Journal of Criminology, 49, 35–47.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Jenks, C. (2011). The context of and emergent and enduring concept. Crime, Media, Culture, 7(3), 229–236.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Jewkes, Y. (2004). Media and crime. London, England: Sage.Google Scholar
  67. Jewkes, Y. (2011). Media and crime (2nd ed.). London: Sage.Google Scholar
  68. Jewkes, Y. (2015). Media and crime (3rd ed.). Los Angeles: Sage.Google Scholar
  69. Jewkes, Y., & Yar, M. (2010). Handbook of internet crime. Collumpton: Willan Publishing.Google Scholar
  70. Jones, P. (1997). Moral panic: The legacy of Stan Cohen and Stuart Hall. Media International Australia, 85, 6–16.Google Scholar
  71. Kitzinger, J. (2004). Framing abuse: Media influence and public understanding of secual violence against children. London, England: Pluto Press.Google Scholar
  72. Levi, M. (2008). Suite Revenge? The Shaping of Folk Devils and Moral Panics about White-Collar Crimes. British Journal of Criminology, 49, 48–67.Google Scholar
  73. Maratea, R. (2008). The e-rise and fall of social problems: The blogosphere as a public arena. Social Problems, 55(1), 139–160.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Martin, G. (2015). Stop the boats! Moral panic in Australia over asylum seekers. Continuum Journal of Media & Cultural Studies, 29(3), 304–322.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. McLaughlin, E. (2014). See also Young, 1971: Marshall McLuhan, moral panics and moral indignation. Theoretical Criminology, 18(4), 422–431.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. McRobbie, A. (1994a). Folk devils fight back. New Left Review, 203, 107–116.Google Scholar
  77. McRobbie, A. (1994b). Postmodernism and popular culture. London, England: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. McRobbie, A., & Thornton, S. (1995). Rethinking “moral panic” for multi-mediated social worlds. British Journal of Sociology, 46(4), 559–574.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Miller, D., & Kitzinger, J. (1998). AIDS, the policy process and moral panics. In The circuit of mass communication: Media strategies, representation, and audience reception in the AIDS crisis (pp. 213–241). London, England: Sage.Google Scholar
  80. Miller, T. (2013). Tracking moral panic as a concept. In C. Krinsky (Ed.), The Ashgate research companion to moral panics (pp. 37–54). Surrey: Ashgate.Google Scholar
  81. Mitchell, A., & Holcomb, J. (2016). State of the News Media 2016. Retrieved from http://www.journalism.org/2016/06/15/state-of-the-news-media-2016/.
  82. Moore, S. E. H. (2013). The cautionary tale: A new paradigm for studying media coverage of crime. In C. Critcher, J. Hughes, J. Petley, & A. Rohloff (Eds.), Moral panics in the contemporary world. New York, NY: Bloomsbury.Google Scholar
  83. Morgan, G., & Poynting, S. (Eds.). (2012). Global Islamophobia: Muslims and moral panic in the West. Farnham, Surrey; Burlington, Vt: Ashgate.Google Scholar
  84. Myllylahti, M. (2016). New Zealand Media Ownership Report 2016 (Academic). Auckland: AUT Centre for Journalism, Media, and Democracy.Google Scholar
  85. Olsen, N., & Christensen, K. (2015). Social media, new digital technologies and their potential application in sensory and consumer research. Current Opinion in Food Science, 3, 23–26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Pratt, J. (2005). Child sexual abuse: Purity and danger in an age of anxiety. Crime, Law and Social Change, 43, 263–287.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Pratt, J. (2016). Risk control, rights and legitimacy in the limited liability state. British Journal of Criminology, azw065. doi:  10.1093/bjc/azw065.
  88. Pratt, J., & Clarke, M. (2005). Penal populism in New Zealand. Punishment and Society, 7(3), 303–322.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Rohloff, A. (2008). Moral panics as decivilising processes: Towards an Eliasian approach. New Zealand Sociology, 23(1), 66–76.Google Scholar
  90. Rohloff, A. (2011). Extending the concept of moral panic: Elias, climate change and civilisation. Sociology, 45(4), 634–649.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Rohloff, A. (2013). Moral panics over the environment? “Climate crisis” and the moral panics model. In C. Krinsky (Ed.), The Ashgate research companion to moral panics (pp. 401–413). Surrey: Ashgate.Google Scholar
  92. Rohloff, A., & Wright, S. (2010). Beyond the heuristic: Moral panic and social theory. Current Sociology, 58(3), 403–419.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Schirato, T., Buettner, A., Jutel, T., & Stahl, G. (2010). Understanding media studies. Melbourne: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  94. Schlesinger, P., & Tumber, H. (1994). Reporting crime: The media politics of criminal justice. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  95. Singer, J. B. (2016). Transmission creep: Media effects theories and journalism studies in a digital era. Journalism Studies, 1–18. doi:  10.1080/1461670X.2016.1186498.
  96. Stabile, C. A. (2001). Conspiracy or consensus? Reconsidering the moral panic. Journal of Communication Inquiry, 25(3), 258–278.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Surette, R. (1988). Media, crime, and criminal justice: Images and realities (2nd ed.). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.Google Scholar
  98. Thompson, K. (1998). Moral panics. London, England: Routledge.Google Scholar
  99. Tonry, M. (2001). Symbol, substance and severity in western penal policies. Punishment and Society, 3(4), 517–536.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Ungar, S. (2001). Moral panic versus the risk society: The implications of the changing sites of social anxiety. British Journal of Sociology, 52(2), 271–292.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Waddington, P. A. J. (1986). Mugging as a moral panic. British Journal of Sociology, 37(2), 245–259.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Walsh, J. P. (2016). Moral panics by design: The case of terrorism. Current Sociology, 001139211663325. doi:  10.1177/0011392116633257.
  103. Welch, M., Price, E. A., & Yankey, N. (2002). Moral panic over youth violence: Wilding and the manufacture of menace in the media. Youth and Society, 34(1), 3–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Williams, M. L., & Burnap, P. (2015). Cyberhate on social media in the aftermath of Woolwich: A case study in computational criminology and big data. British Journal of Criminology. doi: 10.1093/bjc/azv059.Google Scholar
  105. Wright-Monod, S. (2016). Dolphin “troubles” in New Zealand. Presented at the ANZSOC Conference.Google Scholar
  106. Wright, S. (2015). Moral panics as enacted melodramas. British Journal of Criminology, 55(6), 1245–1262. doi: 10.1093/bjc/azv025.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Yar, M. (2012). Crime, media and the will-to-representation: Reconsidering relationships in the new media age. Crime, Media, Culture, 8(3), 245–260.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Young, A. (1996). Imagining crime: Textual outlaws and criminal conversations. London, England: Sage.Google Scholar
  109. Young, J. (2007). Slipping away … moral panics each side of “the Golden age.” In D. Downes, P. Rock, & C. Chinkin (Eds.), Crime, social control and human rights: From moral panics to states of denial, essays in honour of Stan Cohen (pp. 53–65). Collumpton, England: Willan.Google Scholar
  110. Young, J. (2009). Moral panic: Its origins in resistance, ressentiment, and the translation of fantasy into reality. British Journal of Criminology, 49, 4–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Young, J. (2011). Moral panics and the transgressive other. Crime, Media, Culture, 7(3), 245–258.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Victoria University of WellingtonWellingtonNew Zealand

Personalised recommendations