Advertisement

The State of Health in Latin America: Trends and Correlates of Health Expenditures

Chapter
  • 146 Downloads

Abstract

This chapter draws on quantitative data to examine the trends and correlates of health expenditure, including overall expenditure, the public–private mix of health expenditure, and public health expenditure compared to other public expenditures in Latin American countries. This chapter sets the stage for the three country case studies. The quantitative analysis reveals that overall, public health expenditure in Latin America has been on the rise, and that World Bank conditions attached to these loans do not have a statistically significant effect on health expenditure across a variety of measures in Latin America. Does this mean that the World Bank and other international financial institutions do not matter for health financing and health sector reform in Latin America and the Caribbean? The answer is more complicated. This chapter simultaneously contradicts some established notions of IFIs acting as neoliberal agents, driving down public expenditure and programs, and establishes the possibility of a non-unitary, contingent effect of World Bank work in health across countries, confirmed in the following country case-study chapters.

Keywords

Public Health Expenditure World Bank Statistics International Financial Institutions (IFIs) Health Spending Welfare statesWelfare 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. Amenta, E., Bonastia, C., & Caren, N. (2001). US social policy in comparative and historical perspective: Concepts, images, arguments, and research strategies. Annual Review of Sociology, 213–234.Google Scholar
  2. Armada, F., Muntaner, C., & Navarro, V. (2001). Health and social security reforms in Latin America: The convergence of the World Health Organization, the World Bank, and transnational corporations. International Journal of Health Services, 31(4), 729–768.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Avelino, G., Brown, D. S., & Hunter, W. (2005). The effects of capital mobility, trade openness, and democracy on social spending in Latin America, 1980–1999. American Journal of Political Science, 49(3), 625–641.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Babb, S. (2005). The social consequences of structural adjustment: Recent evidence and current debates. Annual Review of Sociology, 199–222.Google Scholar
  5. Beckfield, J., Olafsdottir, S., & Sosnaud, B. (2013). Healthcare systems in comparative perspective: Classification, convergence, institutions, inequalities, and five missed turns. Annual Review of Sociology, 39, 127–146.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Berman, P. (1995). Health sector reform: Making health development sustainable. Health Policy, 32(1), 13–28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Birn, A.-E., & Dmitrienko, K. (2005). The World Bank: Global health or global harm? American Journal of Public Health, 95(7), 1091.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Brooks, C., & Manza, J. (2008). Why welfare states persist: The importance of public opinion in democracies. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  9. Brown, D. S., & Hunter, W. (2004). Democracy and human capital formation education spending in latin america, 1980–1997. Comparative Political Studies, 37(7), 842–864.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. de Mesa, A. A., & Mesa-Lago, C. (2006). The structural pension reform in Chile: Effects, comparisons with other Latin American reforms, and lessons. Oxford Review of Economic Policy, 22(1), 149–167.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Elling, R. H. (1994). Theory and method for the cross-national study of health systems. International Journal of Health Services, 24(2), 285–309.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Esping-Andersen, G. (1990). The three worlds of welfare capitalism. Cambridge: Policy Press, Cambtidge.Google Scholar
  13. Esping-Andersen, G. (1999). Social foundations of postindustrial economies. Oxford: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Fourcade-Gourinchas, M., & Babb, S. L. (2002). The rebirth of the liberal creed: Paths to neoliberalism in four countries1. American Journal of Sociology, 108(3), 533–579.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Franzoni Martínez, J. (2008). Welfare regimes in Latin America: Capturing constellations of markets, families, and policies. Latin American Politics and Society, 50(2), 67–100.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Glatzer, M., & Rueschemeyer, D. (2004). Globalization and the future of the welfare state. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press.Google Scholar
  17. Huber, E. (2005). Globalization and social policy developments in Latin America. Globalization and the Future of the Welfare State, 75–105.Google Scholar
  18. Huber, E., & Stephens, J. D. (2001). Development and crisis of the welfare state: Parties and policies in global markets. Chicago: University of Chicago press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Huber, E., & Stephens, J. D. (2012). Democracy and the left: Social policy and inequality in Latin America. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Huber, E., Mustillo, T., & Stephens, J. D. (2008). Politics and social spending in Latin America. The Journal of Politics, 70(02), 420–436.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Kaufman, R. R., & Segura-Ubiergo, A. (2001). Globalization, domestic politics, and social spending in Latin America: A time-series cross-section analysis, 1973–97. World Politics, 53(04), 553–587.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Kawachi, I., & Kennedy, B. P. (1997). The relationship of income inequality to mortality: Does the choice of indicator matter? Social Science and Medicine, 45(7), 1121–1127.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Kawachi, I., & Kennedy, B. P. (1999). Income inequality and health: pathways and mechanisms. Health Services Research, 34(1 Pt 2), 215.Google Scholar
  24. Kawachi, I., Kennedy, B. P., & Glass, R. (1999). Social capital and self-rated health: a contextual analysis. American Journal of Public Health, 89(8), 1187–1193.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Marshall, T. (2009). Citizenship and Social Class [in:] Inequality and Society. In J. Manza & M. Sauder (Eds.), Social science perspectives on social stratification. New York.Google Scholar
  26. McGuire, J. W. (2010). Wealth, health, and democracy in East Asia and Latin America. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Mechanic, D. (1975). The comparative study of health care delivery systems. Annual Review of Sociology, 43–65.Google Scholar
  28. Mechanic, D., & Rochefort, D. A. (1996). Comparative medical systems. Annual Review of Sociology, 239–270.Google Scholar
  29. Mesa-Lago, C. (2006). Private and public pension systems compared: an evaluation of the Latin American experience. Review of Political Economy, 18(3), 317–334.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Mesa-Lago, C. (2008). Reassembling social security: A survey of pensions and health care reforms in Latin America. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  31. Mesa-Lago, C., & Müller, K. (2002). The politics of pension reform in Latin America. Journal of Latin American Studies, 34(03), 687–715.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Moore, B. (1993). Social origins of dictatorship and democracy: Lord and peasant in the making of the modern world (Vol. 268). Beacon Press, Boston.Google Scholar
  33. Murillo, M. (2002). Political bias in policy convergence: privatization choices in Latin America. World Politics, 54(04), 462–493.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Noy, S. (2011). New contexts, different patterns? A comparative analysis of social spending and government health expenditure in Latin America and the OECD. International Journal of Comparative Sociology, 52(3), 215–244.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Noy, S., & McManus, P. A. (2015). Modernization, globalization, trends, and convergence in health expenditure in Latin America and the Caribbean. Sociology of Development, 1(2), 113–139.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Noy, S., & Sprague-Jones J. (2016). Comparative dynamics of public health spending: Re-conceptualizing delta convergence to examine OECD and Latin America. International Journal of Comparative Sociology, 57(6), 425–448.Google Scholar
  37. Orloff, A. S. (1993). Gender and the social rights of citizenship: The comparative analysis of gender relations and welfare states. American Sociological Review, 303–328.Google Scholar
  38. Pierson, P. (2004). Politics in time: History, institutions, and social analysis. Princeton: Princeton University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Pierson, P. (2005). The study of policy development. Journal of policy history, 17(01), 34–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Portes, A., & Hoffman, K. (2003). Latin American class structures: Their composition and change during the neoliberal era. Latin American Research Review, 41–82.Google Scholar
  41. Pribble, J. E. (2008). Protecting the poor: Welfare politics in Latin America’s free market era. Ann Arbor: ProQuest.Google Scholar
  42. Ragin, C. (1994). A qualitative comparative analysis of pension systems. The Comparative Political Economy of the Welfare State, 320–345.Google Scholar
  43. Rodrik, D. (1997). Has Globalisation gone too far?. Washington DC: Institute for International Economics.Google Scholar
  44. Rudra, N. (2007). Welfare states in developing countries: Unique or universal? Journal of Politics, 69(2), 378–396.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Ruger, J. P. (2005). The changing role of the World Bank in global health. American Journal of Public Health, 95(1), 60–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Teichman, J. (2004). The World Bank and policy reform in Mexico and Argentina. Latin American Politics and Society, 46(1), 39–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Vreeland, J. R. (2003). The IMF and economic development. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Vreeland, J. R. (2006). The International Monetary Fund (IMF): Politics of conditional lending. UK: Routledge.Google Scholar
  49. Weyland, K. (2005). Theories of policy diffusion lessons from Latin American pension reform. World Politics, 57(02), 262–295.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Weyland, K. G. (2006). External pressures and international norms in Latin American pension reform. Citeseer.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of SociologyUniversity of WyomingLaramieUSA

Personalised recommendations