Advertisement

The World Bank, Development, and Health

Chapter
  • 166 Downloads

Abstract

This chapter introduces the central puzzle guiding the book: how is it that the World Bank, viewed as a neoliberal hegemon, was unable to effect sweeping market-oriented reforms in health in Latin America, a region mired by economic crisis and recession and needful of external funding? I set up the theoretical framework that guides the book, drawing from the literatures on global governance, neoliberalism and the Washington and possible post-Washington consensus, and health systems research. I introduce the concepts of state autonomy and capacity in health as well as the paradigmatic goals (equity and efficiency) and policy instruments (in particular, I examine (1) decentralization and deconcentration, (2) performance-based financing, (3) separation of functions across and within institutions, (4) targeting, (5) private sector involvement, and (6) primary health care model) framework which guides my analysis. I discuss my research design and provide historical background on the health sectors of Argentina, Costa Rica, and Peru’s in order to contextualize these countries’ different responses and episodes of health sector reform between 1980 and 2005, setting the stage for the developments discussed in the book.

References

  1. Amenta, E. (2005). State-centered and political institutional theory: Retrospect and prospect. Handbook of Political Sociology, 96–114.Google Scholar
  2. Armada, F., Muntaner, C., & Navarro, V. (2001). Health and social security reforms in Latin America: The convergence of the World Health Organization, the World Bank, and transnational corporations. International Journal of Health Services, 31(4), 729–768.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Aucoin, P. (2002). Paradigms, principles, paradoxes and pendulums. Public Management: Reforming Public Management, 3(2), 26.Google Scholar
  4. Avelino, G., Brown, D. S., & Hunter, W. (2005). The effects of capital mobility, trade openness, and democracy on social spending in Latin America, 1980–1999. American Journal of Political Science, 49(3), 625–641.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Babb, S. (2005). The social consequences of structural adjustment: Recent evidence and current debates. Annual Review of Sociology, 199–222.Google Scholar
  6. Babb, S. (2009). Behind the development banks: Washington politics, world poverty, and the wealth of nations. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  7. Babb, S. (2013). The Washington consensus as transnational policy paradigm: Its origins, trajectory and likely successor. Review of International Political Economy, 20(2), 268–297.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bambra, C. (2007). Going beyond the three worlds of welfare capitalism: Regime theory and public health research. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 61(12), 1098–1102.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bank, W. (2017a). How does the World Bank classify countries? Accessed January 1, 2017 https://datahelpdesk.worldbank.org/knowledgebase/articles/378834-how-does-the-world-bank-classify-countries.
  10. Bank, W. (2017b). Millennium development goals. Accessed January 1, 2017.Google Scholar
  11. Bank, W. (2017c). What we do. Accessed January 1, 2017 http://www.worldbank.org/en/about/what-we-do.
  12. Barrientos, A., & Lloyd-Sherlock, P. (2000). Reforming health insurance in Argentina and Chile. Health Policy and Planning, 15(4), 417–423.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Bedford, K. (2007). The imperative of male inclusion: How institutional context influences World Bank gender policy. International Feminist Journal of Politics, 9(3), 289–311.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Bedford, K. (2009). Developing partnerships: Gender, sexuality, and the reformed World Bank. Minnesota: University of Minnesota Press.Google Scholar
  15. Beeson, M. (2001). Globalization, governance, and the political-economy of public policy reform in East Asia. Governance, 14(4), 481–502.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Béland, D. (2005). Ideas and social policy: An institutionalist perspective. Social Policy & Administration, 39(1), 1–18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Béland, D. (2010). Policy change and health care research. Journal of Health Politics, Policy and Law, 35(4), 615–641.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Béland, D., & Cox, R. H. (2010). Ideas and politics in social science research. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  19. Béland, D., & Waddan, A. (2000). From thatcher (and pinochet) to clinton? Conservative think tanks, foreign models and US pensions reform. The Political Quarterly, 71(2), 202–210.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Birn, A.-E., & Dmitrienko, K. (2005). The World Bank: Global health or global harm? American Journal of Public Health, 95(7), 1091–1092.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Blyth, M. (2002). Great transformations: Economic ideas and institutional change in the twentieth century. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  22. Bonal, X. (2002). Plus ça change… The World Bank global education policy and the post-Washington consensus. International Studies in Sociology of Education, 12(1), 3–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Bossert, T. (1998). Analyzing the decentralization of health systems in developing countries: Decision space, innovation and performance. Social Science and Medicine, 47(10), 1513–1527.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Brady, D., & Lee, H. Y. (2014). The rise and fall of government spending in affluent democracies, 1971–2008. Journal of European Social Policy, 24(1), 56–79.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Brooks, S. M. (2005). Interdependent and domestic foundations of policy change: The diffusion of pension privatization around the world. International Studies Quarterly, 49(2), 273–294.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Brown, D. S., & Hunter, W. (2004). Democracy and human capital formation education spending in Latin America, 1980 to 1997. Comparative Political Studies, 37(7), 842–864.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Burki, S. J., & Perry, G. (1998). Beyond the Washington consensus: Institutions matter. Washington, DC: World Bank Publications.Google Scholar
  28. Calkin, S. (2015). “Tapping” women for post-crisis capitalism: Evidence from the 2012 World development report. International Feminist Journal of Politics, 17(4), 611–629.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Campbell, J. L. (1998). Institutional analysis and the role of ideas in political economy. Theory and Society, 27(3), 377–409.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Carpenter, D. (2012). Is health politics different? Annual Review of Political Science, 15, 287–311.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Chorev, N. (2013). Restructuring neoliberalism at the World Health Organization. Review of International Political Economy, 20(4), 627–666.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Clark, M. A. (2004). Reinforcing a public system: Health sector reform in Costa Rica. Crucial needs, weak incentives: Social sector reform, democratization, and globalization in Latin America, 189–216. Washington: Woodrow Wilson Center Press and The Johns Hopkins University Press.Google Scholar
  33. Clegg, L. (2013). Controlling the World Bank and IMF: Shareholders, stakeholders, and the politics of concessional lending. Berlin: Springer.Google Scholar
  34. Clift, J. (2003). Beyond the Washington consensus. Finance and Development, 40(3), 9.Google Scholar
  35. Coady, D., Grosh, M. E., & Hoddinott, J. (2004). Targeting of transfers in developing countries: Review of lessons and experience (Vol. 1). Washington, DC: World Bank Publications.Google Scholar
  36. Coburn, C., Restivo, M., & Shandra, J. M. (2015). The World Bank and child mortality in sub-saharan Africa. Sociology of Development, 1(3), 348–373.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Cueto, M. (2004). The origins of primary health care and selective primary health care. American Journal of Public Health, 94(11), 1864–1874.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. de Mesa, A. A., & Mesa-Lago, C. (2006). The structural pension reform in Chile: Effects, comparisons with other Latin American reforms, and lessons. Oxford Review of Economic Policy, 22(1), 149–167.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. De Vos, P., De Ceukelaire, W., & Van der Stuyft, P. (2006). Colombia and cuba, contrasting models in Latin America’s health sector reform. Tropical Medicine & International Health, 11(10), 1604–1612.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. De Vos, P., & Van der Stuyft, P. (2015). Sociopolitical determinants of international health policy. International Journal of Health Services, 45(2), 363–377.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Deacon, B. (1997). Global social policy: International organizations and the future of welfare. Bistro: Sage.Google Scholar
  42. Deacon, B. (2007). Global social policy and governance. Bistro: Sage.Google Scholar
  43. Di Leva, C. E. (2004). Sustainable development and the World Bank’s millennium development goals. Natural Resources & Environment, 13–19.Google Scholar
  44. Doner, R. F. (1992). Limits of state strength: Toward an institutionalist view of economic development. World Politics, 44(03), 398–431.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Dreher, A. (2004). A public choice perspective of IMF and World Bank lending and conditionality. Public Choice, 119(3–4), 445–464.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Driscoll, D. D. (1995). The IMF and the World Bank: How do they differ? Washington, DC: International Monetary Fund.Google Scholar
  47. Easterly, W. (2000). The effect of IMF and World Bank programs on poverty. Available at SSRN 256883.Google Scholar
  48. Esping-Andersen, G. (1999). Social foundations of postindustrial economies. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  49. Esping-Andersen, G. (2013). The three worlds of welfare capitalism. US: Wiley.Google Scholar
  50. Evans, P. (1997). State structures, government-business relations, and economic transformation. Business and the State in Developing Countries, 63–87.Google Scholar
  51. Evans, P., & Rauch, J. E. (1999). Bureaucracy and growth: A cross-national analysis of the effects of “Weberian” state structures on economic growth. American Sociological Review, 748–765.Google Scholar
  52. Evans, P. B. (1995). Embedded autonomy: States and industrial transformation (Vol. 25). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  53. Evans, P. B., Rueschemeyer, D., & Skocpol, T. (1985). Bringing the state back in. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  54. Ewig, C. (2006). Global processes, local consequences: Gender equity and health sector reform in Peru. Social Politics: International Studies in Gender, State & Society, 13(3), 427–455.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Ferguson, L., & Harman, S. (2015). Gender and infrastructure in the World Bank. Development Policy Review, 33(5), 653–671.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Fine, B. (2002). Social capital versus social theory. UK: Routledge.Google Scholar
  57. Geddes, B. (1994). Politician’s dilemma: Building state capacity in Latin America (Vol. 25). California: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  58. Glatzer, M., & Rueschemeyer, D. (2004). Globalization and the future of the welfare state. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press.Google Scholar
  59. Griffin, P. (2009). Gendering the World Bank: Neoliberalism and the gendered foundations of global governance. Berlin: Springer.Google Scholar
  60. Guillén, M. F. (2001). Is globalization civilizing, destructive or feeble? A critique of five key debates in the social science literature. Annual Review of Sociology, 235–260.Google Scholar
  61. Gwatkin, D. R., Bhuiya, A., & Victora, C. G. (2004). Making health systems more equitable. The Lancet, 364(9441), 1273–1280.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Haggard, S., & Kaufman, R. R. (2008). Development, democracy, and welfare states: Latin America, East Asia, and Eastern Europe. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  63. Hall, A. (2007). Social policies in the World Bank: Paradigms and challenges. Global social policy, 7(2), 151–175.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Hall, P. A. (1993). Policy paradigms, social learning, and the state: The case of economic policymaking in Britain. Comparative politics, 275–296.Google Scholar
  65. Hall, P. A., & Taylor, R. C. (1996). Political science and the three new institutionalisms. Political Studies, 44(5), 936–957.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Hammer, J. S., & Berman, P. (1995). Ends and means in public health policy in developing countries. Health Policy, 32(1), 29–45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Hanrieder, T. (2014). Local orders in international organisations: The World Health Organization’s global programme on AIDS. Journal of International Relations and Development, 17(2), 220–241.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Harman, S. (2010). The World Bank and HIV/AIDS: Setting a global agenda. UK: Routledge.Google Scholar
  69. Harrison, G. (2010). Neoliberal Africa: The impact of global social engineering. London: Zed Books.Google Scholar
  70. Hay, C. (2000). Contemporary capitalism, globalization, regionalization, and the persistence of national variation. Review of International Studies, 26(4), 509–531.Google Scholar
  71. Hay, C., & Marsh, D. (Eds.). (2010). Demystifying globalization. Basingstoke: MacMillan Press.Google Scholar
  72. Henisz, W. J., Zelner, B. A., & Guillén, M. F. (2005). The worldwide diffusion of market-oriented infrastructure reform, 1977–1999. American Sociological Review, 70(6), 871–897.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Homedes, N., & Ugalde, A. (2005). Why neoliberal health reforms have failed in Latin America. Health Policy, 71(1), 83–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Huber, E., Mustillo, T., & Stephens, J. D. (2008). Politics and social spending in Latin America. The Journal of Politics, 70(02), 420–436.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Huber, E., & Solt, F. (2004). Successes and failures of neoliberalism. Latin American Research Review, 39(3), 150–164.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Huber, E., & Stephens, J. D. (2001). Development and crisis of the welfare state: Parties and policies in global markets. Chicago: University of Chicago press.Google Scholar
  77. Huber, E., & Stephens, J. D. (2002). Globalisation, competitiveness, and the social democratic model. Social Policy and Society, 1(01), 47–57.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Huber, E., & Stephens, J. D. (2012). Democracy and the left: Social policy and inequality in Latin America. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  79. Hunter, W., & Brown, D. S. (2000). World Bank directives, domestic interests, and the politics of human capital investment in Latin America. Comparative Political Studies, 33(1), 113–143.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Ilon, L. (1996). The changing role of the World Bank: Education policy as global welfare. Policy & Politics, 24(4), 413–424.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Immergut, E. M. (1992a). Health politics: Interests and institutions in Western Europe. CUP Archive.Google Scholar
  82. Immergut, E. M. (1992b). The rules of the game: The logic of health policy-making in France, Switzerland, and Sweden. Structuring politics: Historical institutionalism in comparative analysis, 57-89.Google Scholar
  83. Jamison, D., Mosley, W., Measham, A., & Bobadilla, J. (1993). World development report: Investing in health. Washington, DC: World Bank.Google Scholar
  84. Jayasuriya, K. (2005). Beyond institutional fetishism: From the developmental to the regulatory state. New Political Economy, 10(3), 381–387.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Jordana, J., & Levi-Faur, D. (2005). The diffusion of regulatory capitalism in Latin America: Sectoral and national channels in the making of a new order. The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 598(1), 102–124.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Kaasch, A., & Martens, K. (2015). Actors and agency in global social governance. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  87. Kanbur, R. (1999, July 30). The strange case of the Washington Consensus. A brief note on John Williamson’s “What should the Bank think about the Washington Consensus”. New York: Cornell University.Google Scholar
  88. Kapur, D., Lewis, J., & Webb, R. (1997). The World Bank: Its first half-century, Volume I: History, 2. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution.Google Scholar
  89. Karns, M. P., Mingst, K. A., & Stiles, K. W. (2015). International organizations: The politics and processes of global governance (3rd ed.). London: Lynne Rienner Publishers.Google Scholar
  90. Keshavjee, M. S. (2014). Blind spot: How neoliberalism infiltrated global health (Vol. 30). California: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  91. Lange, M., Mahoney, J., & Vom Hau, M. (2006). Colonialism and development: A comparative analysis of Spanish and British colonies. American Journal of Sociology, 111(5), 1412–1462.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Larner, W., & Walters, W. (Eds.). (2004). Global governmentality: Governing international spaces. New York, NY: Routledge.Google Scholar
  93. Laurell, A. C. (2000). Structural adjustment and the globalization of social policy in Latin America. International Sociology, 15(2), 306–325.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Levi-Faur, D., & Jordana, J. (2006). Toward a Latin American regulatory state? The diffusion of autonomous regulatory agencies across countries and sectors. International Journal of Public Administration, 29(4–6), 335–366.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Levitsky, S., & Murillo, M. V. (2009). Variation in institutional strength. Annual Review of Political Science, 12, 115–133.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Lloyd-Sherlock, P. (2005). Health sector reform in Argentina: A cautionary tale. Social Science and Medicine, 60(8), 1893–1903.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Lloyd-Sherlock, P. (2006). When social health insurance goes wrong: Lessons from Argentina and Mexico. Social Policy & Administration, 40(4), 353–368.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Mahoney, J. (2003). Long-run development and the legacy of colonialism in Spanish America. American Journal of Sociology, 109(1), 50–106.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Mankiw, N. (2014). Essentials of economics. US: Cengage learning.Google Scholar
  100. Mann, M. (1984). The autonomous power of the state: Its origins, mechanisms and results. European Journal of Sociology, 25(02), 185–213.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Meessen, B., Soucat, A., & Sekabaraga, C. (2011). Performance-based financing: Just a donor fad or a catalyst towards comprehensive health-care reform? Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 89(2), 153–156.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Mehrotra, S., & Delamonica, E. (2005). The private sector and privatization in social services is the Washington consensus ‘dead’? Global Social Policy, 5(2), 141–174.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Meier, B. M., & Ayala, A. S. (2014). The pan american health organization and the mainstreaming of human rights in regional health governance. The Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics, 42(3), 356–374.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Melo, M. A. (2007). Institutional weakness and the puzzle of Argentina’s low taxation. Latin American Politics and Society, 49(4), 115–148.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Mesa-Lago, C. (2002). Myth and reality of pension reform: The Latin American evidence. World Development, 30(8), 1309–1321.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Mesa-Lago, C. (2006). Private and public pension systems compared: An evaluation of the Latin American experience. Review of Political Economy, 18(3), 317–334.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Mesa-Lago, C. (2008). Reassembling social security: A survey of pensions and health care reforms in Latin America. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  108. Mesa-Lago, C., & Müller, K. (2002). The politics of pension reform in Latin America. Journal of Latin American Studies, 34(3), 687–715.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Meseguer, C. (2005). Policy learning, policy diffusion, and the making of a new order. The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 598(1), 67–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Mills, A. (1994). Decentralization and accountability in the health sector from an international perspective: What are the choices? Public Administration and Development, 14(3), 281–292.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Mishra, R. (2004). Social protection by other means: Can it survive globalization. A Handbook for Comparative Social Policy. Cheltenham/Northampton: Edward Elgar Publishing, 68–90.Google Scholar
  112. Mkandawire, T. (2005). Targeting and universalism in poverty reduction. Geneva: United Nations Research Institute for Social Development Geneva.Google Scholar
  113. Naim, M. (2000). Fads and fashion in economic reforms: Washington consensus or Washington confusion? Third World Quarterly, 21(3), 505–528.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Navarro, V. (2007). Neoliberalism, globalization, and inequalities: Consequences for health and quality of life. Citeseer.Google Scholar
  115. Noy, S. (2011). New contexts, different patterns? A comparative analysis of social spending and government health expenditure in Latin America and the OECD. International Journal of Comparative Sociology, 52(3), 215–244.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Noy, S. (2015). The Washington consensus and social policy: World Bank projects and health sector reform in Costa Rica. Latin American Policy, 6(2), 182–204.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Öniş, Z., & Şenses, F. (2005). Rethinking the emerging post-Washington consensus. Development and Change, 36(2), 263–290.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Orenstein, M. A. (2008). Privatizing pensions: The transnational campaign for social security reform. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  119. Orloff, A. S., & Skocpol, T. (1984). Why not equal protection? Explaining the politics of public social spending in Britain, 1900–1911, and the United States, 1880s–1920s. American Sociological Review, 726–750.Google Scholar
  120. Pierson, P. (1993). When effect becomes cause: Policy feedback and political change. World Politics, 45(4), 595–628.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Pierson, P. (1994). Dismantling the welfare state?: Reagan Thatcher and the politics of retrenchment. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Pierson, P. (2000). Increasing returns, path dependence, and the study of politics. American Political Science Review, 94(2), 251–267.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Pierson, P. (2004). Politics in time: History, institutions, and social analysis. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  124. Polanyi, K. (1944). The great transformation: The political and economic origins of our time. US: Beacon Press.Google Scholar
  125. Polidano, C., & Hulme, D. (1999). Public management reform im developing countries: Issues and outcomes. Public Management an International Journal of Research and Theory, 1(1), 121–132.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Portes, A. (1997). Neoliberalism and the sociology of development: Emerging trends and unanticipated facts. Population and Development Review, 229–259.Google Scholar
  127. Portes, A., & Landolt, P. (2000). Social capital: Promise and pitfalls of its role in development. Journal of Latin American Studies, 32(02), 529–547.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Pribble, J. (2013). Welfare and party politics in Latin America. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  129. Radin, D. (2008). World Bank funding and health care sector performance in Central and Eastern Europe. International Political Science Review, 29(3), 325–347.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Ragin, C. (1994). A qualitative comparative analysis of pension systems. The comparative political economy of the welfare state, 320–345.Google Scholar
  131. Rivas-Loria, P., & Shelton, C. (2004). Analysis of health sector reforms. Region of the Americas. Washington, DC: Pan American Health Organization.Google Scholar
  132. Rodrik, D. (1997). Has globalisation gone too far? Washington, DC: Institute for International Economics.Google Scholar
  133. Roll, M. (2014). The politics of public sector performance: Pockets of effectiveness in developing countries. UK: Routledge.Google Scholar
  134. Ruger, J. P. (2005). The changing role of the World Bank in global health. American Journal of Public Health, 95(1), 60–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Ruggie, J. G. (1982). International regimes, transactions, and change: Embedded liberalism in the postwar economic order. International Organization, 36(2), 379–415.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Sánchez-Talanquer, M. (2017). Political cleavages and the development of fiscal capacity: Historical evidence from Mexico and Colombia.Google Scholar
  137. Santiso, C. (2004). The contentious Washington consensus: Reforming the reforms in emerging markets. Review of International Political Economy, 11(4), 828–844.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Scott, J. C. (1998). Seeing like a state: How certain schemes to improve the human condition have failed. Yale: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  139. Shandra, J. M., Nobles, J., London, B., & Williamson, J. B. (2004). Dependency, democracy, and infant mortality: A quantitative, cross-national analysis of less developed countries. Social Science and Medicine, 59(2), 321–333.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Silva, H. T., De Paepe, P., Soors, W., Lanza, O. V., Closon, M.-C., Van Dessel, P., et al. (2011). Revisiting health policy and the World Bank in Bolivia. Global Social Policy, 11(1), 22–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. Simmons, B. A., Dobbin, F., & Garrett, G. (2006). Introduction: The international diffusion of liberalism. International Organization, 60(4), 781–810.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. Simmons, B. A., Dobbin, F., & Garrett, G. (2007). The global diffusion of public policies: Social construction, coercion, competition or learning? Annual Review of Sociology, 33, 449–472.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. Skocpol, T. (1988). Social revolutions and mass military mobilization. World Politics, 40(02), 147–168.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. Skocpol, T. (1992). Protecting Mothers and Soldiers: The Political Origins of Social Policy in the United States.Google Scholar
  145. Skocpol, T. (1995). Social policy in the United States: Future possibilities in historical perspective. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  146. Skocpol, T., & Amenta, E. (1986). States and social policies. Annual Review of Sociology, 131–157.Google Scholar
  147. Soifer, H. (2012). Measuring state capacity in contemporary Latin America. Revista de Ciencia Política, 32(3), 585–598.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. Starfield, B., Shi, L., & Macinko, J. (2005). Contribution of primary care to health systems and health. Milbank Quarterly, 83(3), 457–502.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. Stiglitz, J. E. (1998). More instruments and broader goals: Moving toward the post-Washington consensus. Finland: UNU/WIDER Helsinki.Google Scholar
  150. Stiglitz, J. E. (2003). Democratizing the international monetary fund and the World Bank: Governance and accountability. Governance, 16(1), 111–139.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. Stocker, K., Waitzkin, H., & Iriart, C. (1999). The exportation of managed care to Latin America. New England Journal of Medicine, 340(14), 1131–1136.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. Thelen, K. (1999). Historical institutionalism in comparative politics. Annual Review of Political Science, 2(1), 369–404.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. Unger, J.-P., De Paepe, P., Cantuarias, G. S., & Herrera, O. A. (2008). Chile’s neoliberal health reform: An assessment and a critique. PLoS Med, 5(4), e79.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. Vreeland, J. R. (2003). The IMF and economic development. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  155. Wade, R. (1990). Governing the market: Economic theory and the role of government in East Asian industrialization. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  156. Waitzkin, H. (2011). Medicine and public health at the end of empire. Paradigm: Paradigm Publishers.Google Scholar
  157. Waitzkin, H., Iriart, C., Estrada, A., & Lamadrid, S. (2001a). Social medicine in Latin America: Productivity and dangers facing the major national groups. The Lancet, 358(9278), 315–323.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. Waitzkin, H., Iriart, C., Estrada, A., & Lamadrid, S. (2001b). Social medicine then and now: Lessons from Latin America. American Journal of Public Health, 91(10), 1592–1601.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. Weaver, C. (2008). Hypocrisy trap: The World Bank and the poverty of reform. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  160. Weiss, L. (1999). State power and the Asian crisis. New Political Economy, 4(3), 317–342.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. Weyland, K. (2005). Theories of policy diffusion lessons from Latin American pension reform. World Politics, 57(2), 262–295.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. Weyland, K. (2006). External pressures and international norms in Latin American pension reform. Citeseer.Google Scholar
  163. Williamson, J. (2000). What should the World Bank think about the Washington consensus? The World Bank Research Observer, 15(2), 251–264.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. Williamson, J. (2002). Speeches, testimony, papers did the washington consensus fail? Institute for International Economics.Google Scholar
  165. Willis, K., & Khan, S. (2009). Health Reform in Latin America and Africa: Decentralisation, participation and inequalities. Third World Quarterly, 30(5), 991–1005.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  166. Wood, C. A. (2012). Adjustment with a woman’s face: Gender and macroeconomic policy. Struggles for Social Rights in Latin America, p. 209.Google Scholar
  167. Woods, N. (2006). The globalizers: The IMF, the World Bank, and their borrowers. Cornell: Cornell University Press.Google Scholar
  168. Yeates, N. (2002). Globalization and social policy from global neoliberal hegemony to global political pluralism. Global Social Policy, 2(1), 69–91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of SociologyUniversity of WyomingLaramieUSA

Personalised recommendations