Sperm and Spermatozoa Characteristics in the Siberian Sturgeon

Chapter

Abstract

Sperm and spermatozoa in Siberian sturgeon are very interesting and specific from several points of view. Siberian sturgeon usually produces high volume of semen with relatively low sperm and protein concentration, which is partially explained by the atypical testicular morphology where spermatozoa are mixed with urine during passage through the kidneys to the Wolffian ducts. Sodium and chloride ions contribute most to the osmolality of the seminal fluid. Potassium ions are critical for immobilization of spermatozoa, while its antagonist is calcium ion, which triggers spermatozoa motility. The motility period is relatively long (2–3 min) with flagellum beat frequency about 50 Hz. The main characteristics of sturgeon spermatozoa are an elongated head with an acrosome containing acrosomal proteins. The flagellum is equipped with a fin for more efficient movement. During penetration into the egg micropyle, the acrosome undergoes acrosomal reactions, which include formation of fertilization filament and opening of posterolateral projections. The fertilization filament activates the egg and causes the formation of a perivitelline space, while the posterolateral projections serve as an anchor against release from the micropyle. The acrosomal reaction has been recognized to be important for fertilization and development.

Keywords

Semen composition Spermatozoon ultrastructure Acrosomal reaction Siberian sturgeon 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The study was financially supported by COST Office (Food and Agriculture COST Action FA1205: AQUAGAMETE); by the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports of the Czech Republic, projects “CENAKVA” (No. CZ.1.05/2.1.00/01.0024) and “CENAKVA II” (No. LO1205 under the NPU I program); and by the Czech Science Foundation (No. P502/13/26952S), the National Science Centre granted for research project (No. 2011/01/D/NZ9/03738) and funds appropriated to Institute of Animal Reproduction and Food Research. Authors also express thanks to prof. MSc. William L. Shelton, PhD, for English corrections.

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Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Faculty of Fisheries and Protection of WatersLaboratory of Germ Cells, Research Institute of Fish Culture and Hydrobiology, South Bohemian Research Center of Aquaculture and Biodiversity of Hydrocenoses, University of South Bohemia in Ceske BudejoviceVodnanyCzech Republic
  2. 2.Institute of Animal Reproduction and Food Research, Polish Academy of SciencesOlsztynPoland

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