Advertisement

Study of Bench Stability in the Phosphate Mine (Algeria)

  • Mohamed FredjEmail author
  • Abdallah Hafsaoui
  • Youcef Khadri
  • Boukarm Riadh
  • Radouane Nakache
  • Abderrazak Saadoun
  • Kamel Menacer
Conference paper
Part of the Sustainable Civil Infrastructures book series (SUCI)

Abstract

The results of analyses performed and aimed to the investigation of the stability of a rock slope in open pit mine in Tebessa (East Algeria). Processes of sliding, toppling and rolling of large blocks, affect this slope. Sloped bench faces that compose the overall slope in the studied case in this paper are evaluated from the stability prospective by applying a variety of stability analysis methods. The adopted approach is based on laboratory tests on understudied samples to designate the mechanical parameters and numerical modeling by implementing the finite element method. The latter, a vital tool to the quantitative determination of deformation mechanisms in large slope instabilities, is used to unravel the uncertainty of mechanical homogeneity properties of the involved materials at the level of discrete meshes in numerical computations that type of application proposes a procedural combination of an assortment of calculation stability methods through three steps. The first step is to determine the mechanical parameters of Kef-Essnoun rock mass by using slope mass rating (SMR) classification scheme, developed by Romana, to depict the strength of an individual rock slope. This system is based on the rock mass rating (RMR) geo-mechanical classification system of rocks, developed by Bieniawski, who refurbished that system with quantitative guidelines to get the rate of influence of adverse joint orientations. The second step is to uses the abacus method to estimate the stability of open-pit mines. The last step is to use a numerical modeling by applying Plaxis 8.2 calculation code. The analyses indicate that the slip problem is the presence of fragile phosphate-marl interfaces at the base of the phosphate layer.

Notes

Acknowledgements

The author would like to thank the staff of the mine laboratory of Annaba University (Algeria). In addition, a special thanks to A. HAFSAOUI (Annaba University - Algeria) for her objective comments and corrections.

References

  1. Abd-Allah, A.M.A., El-Sawy, E.K., El-Sayed, S.A.S., El-Fakharani, A., Amin, M.S.M.: Rock slope stability and design in Arafat–Muzdalifa area, Saudi Arabia. Arab J. Geosci. (2013). doi: 10.1007/s12517-013-1030-2
  2. Alemdag, S., Akgun, A., Kaya, A., Gokceoglu, C.: A large and rapid planar failure: causes, mechanism, and consequences (Mordut, Gumushane, Turkey). Arab. J. Geosci. 7(3), 1205–1221 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bieniawski, Z.T.: Rock mass classification of jointed rock engineering. In: Proceedings Symposium on Exploration for Rock Engineering, Balkema, Johannesbourg, pp. 97–106 (1976)Google Scholar
  4. Bieniawski, Z.T.: The geomechanics classification in rock engineering applications. In: Proceedings of the 4th Congress International Symposium of Rock Mechanics, Montreux, vol. 2, pp. 41–48 (1979)Google Scholar
  5. Bieniawski, Z.T.: Rock Mechanics Design in Mining and Tunneling, p. 272. Rotterdam, A.A. Balkema (1984)Google Scholar
  6. Bieniawski, Z.T.: Engineering Rock Mass Classifications, p. 251. John Wiley & Sons, New York (1989)Google Scholar
  7. Budetta, P., De Luca, C.: Wedge failure hazard assessment by means of a probabilistic approach for an unstable sea-cliffin. Nat. Hazards 76, 1219–1239 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Colas, G., Pilot, G.: Description et classification des glissements de terrain. Bulletin de liaison des laboratoires des ponts et chaussées, Numéro spécial 2, 21–30 (1976)Google Scholar
  9. Dass Amiour, M., Mezghache, H., Elouadi, B.: The use of three physico-chemical methods in the study of the organic matter associated with the sedimentary phosphorites in Jebel Onk Basin, Algeria. Arab. J. Geosci. 6(2), 529–541 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Deere, D.U., Merritt, A.H., Coon, R.F.: Engineering classification of in situ rock: air force systems command. Kirtland Air Force Base, report AFWL-64-144 (1969)Google Scholar
  11. Franklin, J.A.: Size-strength system for rock characterization: proceedings of the symposium of rock characterization to mine design. In: American Society of Mining Engineers Annual Meeting, pp. 11–16 (1986)Google Scholar
  12. Hadji, R., Boumazbeur, A., Chouabi, A.: Geologic, topographic and climatic controls in landslide hazard assessment-using GIS modeling a case study of Souk Ahras region NE Algeria. Quat. Int. 302, 224–237 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Hoek, E., Brown, E.T.: Empirical strength criterion for rock masses. J. Geotech. Eng. Div. ASCE 106(GT9), 1013–1035 (1980)Google Scholar
  14. Jhanwar, J.C.: Slope failures in the open-cast coal mines of Wardha valley coalfield in central India: a study. Rock Mech. Rock Eng. 44(D5), 635–639 (2011). ISSN 0723-2632CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Jhanwar, J.C.: A classification system for the slope stability assessment of opencast coal mines in central India. Rock Mech. Rock Eng. 45(D4), 631–637 (2012). ISSN 0723-2632CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Jhanwar, J.C.: Slope stability issues in the open-cast limestone and iron ore mines in India—case studies. Indian Min. Eng. J. 52(D7), 8–12 (2013). ISSN 0019-5944Google Scholar
  17. John, L.P., Srikrishnan, S., Verma, C.P., Jhanwar, J.C., Roy, P.P.: Slope stability assessment approach for multiple seams highwall mining extraction. Int. J. Rock Mech. Min. Sci. 70, 444–449 (2014). ISSN 1365-1609Google Scholar
  18. Krautblatter, M., Moser, M., Schrott, L., Wolf, J., Morche, D.: Significance of rock fall magnitude and carbonate dissolution of rock slope erosion and geomorphologic work on alpine limestone cliffs (Reintal, German Alp). Geomorphism 167,168, 21–34 (2012)Google Scholar
  19. Martin, P.D.: Ces risques que l’on dit naturels, 506 p. Editions Eyrolles, Paris (2006)Google Scholar
  20. Merrien-Soukatchoff, V., Quenot, X., Guglielmi, Y.: Apports de méthodes géomécaniques quantitatives à l’investigation de grands versants instables: application au glissement de la Clapière (Saint- Etienne, Alpes Maritimes) (2001)Google Scholar
  21. Mokadem, N., Hamed, Y., Saad, A.B., Gargouri, I.: Atmospheric pollution in North Africa (ecosystems-atmosphere interactions): a case study in the mining basin of El Guettar-M’Dilla (Southwestern Tunisia). Arab. J. Geosci. 7(5), 2071–2079 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Pantelidis, L.: Rock slope stability assessment through rock mass classification systems. Int. J. Rock Mech. Min. Sci. 46(2), 315–325 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Paul, A., Singh, A.P., John-Loui, P., Singh, A.: Validation of RMR-based support design using roof bolts by numerical modeling for underground coal mine of Monnet Ispat, Raigarh, India—a case study. Arab. J. Geosci. 5(6), 1435–1448 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Romana, M.: New adjustment rating for application of the Bieniawski classification to slopes. In: Proceedings of International Symposium on Rock Mechanics, Mining Civ Works, ISRM, Zacatecas, Mexico, pp. 59–63 (1985)Google Scholar
  25. Romana, M.: SMR classification. In: Wittke, W. (ed.) Proceedings of 7th Congress on Rock Mechanics, vol. 2. ISRM, Aachen (1991)Google Scholar
  26. Sarkar, K., Singh, T.N., Verma, A.K.: A numerical simulation of landslide-prone slope in Himalayan region. Arab. J. Geosci. 5, 73–81 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Serafim, J.L., Pereira, J.P.: Consideration of the geomechanics classification of Bieniawski. In: Proceedings of International Symposium on Engineering Geology and Underground Constructions, pp. 1133–1144 (1983)Google Scholar
  28. Trunk, U., Hönisch, K.: Cited at rock mechanics design in mining and tunneling, Bieniawski, p. 183 (1989)Google Scholar
  29. Wang, G., Wu, F., Ye, W.: Stability analysis for toppling failure of unstable rock in three gorges reservoir area, China. Rock Charact. Model Eng. Des. Methods, 431–435 (2013). doi: 10.1201/b14917-77

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mohamed Fredj
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Abdallah Hafsaoui
    • 1
    • 3
  • Youcef Khadri
    • 1
    • 4
  • Boukarm Riadh
    • 2
  • Radouane Nakache
    • 1
    • 3
  • Abderrazak Saadoun
    • 1
    • 2
  • Kamel Menacer
    • 1
    • 3
  1. 1.Laboratory: Mineral Resources and PlanningUniversity of AnnabaAnnabaAlgeria
  2. 2.Mining and Geology Department, Faculty of TechnologyUniversity of BejaiaBéjaïaAlgeria
  3. 3.Mining Department, Faculty of Earth ScienceUniversity of AnnabaAnnabaAlgeria
  4. 4.Mechanical Department, Faculty of TechnologyUniversity of AnnabaAnnabaAlgeria

Personalised recommendations