Due to land availability and shallow coast line, random garbage dump sites have been used in the past and present in the Kingdom of Bahrain. This has caused economic stress, environmental hazards, and contributed to the failure of many family dwellings throughout the Kingdom. This paper aims to identify, locate, and map possible garbage dump sites. Input data used in this paper includes 300 Borehole data from the Ministry of Work (MoW) LandSat imagery from 1972 to present, agricultural, drainage and soil maps that were produced in 1975, Digital Elevation Models (DEM) from the Surveying and Land Registration Bureau (SLRB) and site investigations. ArcGIS 10.2 and extensions are utilized toward mapping possible sites. The IR band is used to delineate the land borders as the sea depth is very shallow. 1969 Topographic map and aerial photos of 1950s are used to identify agricultural and residential areas and as a benchmark. 3D digital surface is created for the Kingdom based on contour map of 1969 and drainage maps of 1975. Supervised classifications of the blue, green, red, and IR bands is preformed every 5 years to determine the growth of residential areas and the shrinking of agricultural areas. Borehole data provides detailed soil information that contributed significantly in identifying garbage dump sites. Site investigation and citizen interviews indicate that almost all garbage dumps areas are located in lowland areas or in the shallow sea. An algorithm based on least square principles is developed to determine possible sites. Results show that dump sites are spread all over the Kingdom. Empty sites that are located within 100 m from residential areas and are at least 2 m below the average elevation of surrounding areas are highly likely to be used as dump sites. 65 dump sites and 47 possible sites are identified. Dump site areas range between 4,000 to almost more than 10 km2.


Bahrain Recycling Municipal solid waste Landfill GIS 


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Civil EngineeringUniversity of BahrainIsa TownBahrain

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