Source Apportionment of PM2.5 in Handan City, China Using a Combined Method of Receptor Model and Chemical Transport Model

  • Zhe Wei
  • Litao WangEmail author
  • Liquan Hou
  • Hongmei Zhang
  • Liang Yue
  • Wei Wei
  • Simeng Ma
  • Chengyu Zhang
  • Xiao Ma
Part of the Environmental Earth Sciences book series (EESCI)


Handan is one of the top polluted cities in China, characterized by high concentration of fine particulate matter (PM2.5). In this paper, a receptor model, i.e., the Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) model, and a chemical transport model, i.e., the Mesoscale Modeling System Generation 5 (MM5) and Models-3/Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model, are both applied to apportion the sources of PM2.5 in Handan. It is concluded that regional sources contribute 36.0% of PM2.5, and within local sources, the contributions of major emission sectors are: 22.3% from coal combustion, 10.7% from metal smelting, 7.3% from Zn-OC-Ba, 18.5% from industry, 11.3% from transportation, 10.6% from biomass burning, and 19.2% from dust emissions. It indicates that regional joint air pollution controls should be emphasized in the future control strategy, and local source controls on coal combustion and industries are the key points to mitigate the severe PM2.5 pollution in Handan.


PM2.5 Source apportionment PMF MM5-CMAQ Handan 



This study was sponsored by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 41475131), Hebei Science Fund of Distinguished Young Scholars (No. D2017402086), the Program for the Outstanding Young Scholars of Hebei Province, the Hebei Support Program of Hundred Outstanding Innovative Talents from Universities (SLRC2017025), the Hebei Support Program of Hundred Outstanding Innovative Talents from Universities (SLRC2017025), Hebei Cultivating Project of Talent Development (A2016002022), the Innovation Team Leader Talent Cultivation Fund of Hebei University of Engineering.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Zhe Wei
    • 1
  • Litao Wang
    • 1
    Email author
  • Liquan Hou
    • 1
  • Hongmei Zhang
    • 2
  • Liang Yue
    • 3
  • Wei Wei
    • 4
  • Simeng Ma
    • 1
  • Chengyu Zhang
    • 1
  • Xiao Ma
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Environmental Engineering, School of City ConstructionHebei University of EngineeringHandanChina
  2. 2.School of Economics and ManagementHebei University of EngineeringHandanChina
  3. 3.Environmental Monitoring Center of HandanHandan Environmental Protection BureauHandanChina
  4. 4.Department of Environmental ScienceBeijing University of TechnologyBeijingChina

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