Assessing the Suitability of Compacted Bentonite-Pond Ash Mixes as Landfill Liner

  • Suryaleen RoutEmail author
  • S. P. Singh
Conference paper
Part of the Sustainable Civil Infrastructures book series (SUCI)


The use of compacted bentonite-sand mixes as landfill liner has been accepted worldwide. However, the non-availability of sand at all landfill sites triggers a search for an alternate material. Pond ash is an industrial waste and has the distinct advantage of a geotechnical material as it resembles the natural earth material. Moreover, it has the similar mineralogical composition to conventional earth materials and needs special attention for its effective utilization rather than disposing of it by consuming large land area leading to the loss of agricultural production. With the addition of bentonite to the pond ash, the plasticity, and strength is expected to increase whereas the permeability is expected to decrease. Further, as pond ash is non-plastic and possesses very low shrinkage, it is expected to reduce the swelling and shrinkage, preventing the formation of any cracks in the compacted liner material. The present study examines the suitability of compacted bentonite-pond ash mixes as landfill liner material. The proportion of bentonite in the pond ash-bentonite mix is varied from 5 to 30% by weight at 5% intervals. The plasticity characteristics, compaction properties, strength and permeability properties of pond ash-bentonite mixes are evaluated. It is observed that with the addition of bentonite the plasticity index, maximum dry density, differential free swell index, cohesion, and compressive strength increases gradual and on the other hand the optimum moisture content, hydraulic conductivity, and frictional angle decreases. It is also found that an addition of 5% bentonite has no effect on the geotechnical properties of pond ash. The designed mixture with 20% bentonite attained its plasticity index, strength and permeability values as per the requirements of a suitable landfill liner material as per the EPA regulatory act.


Pond ash Bentonite Landfill liner Geoengineering properties 


  1. Akcanca, F., Aytekin, M.: Effect of wetting–drying cycles on swelling behavior of lime stabilized sand–bentonite mixtures. Environ. Earth Sci. 66(1), 67–74 (2012). doi: 10.1007/s12665-011-1207-5. SpringerCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Asrith, V., Viswanath, G.: Geotechnical strength of randomly oriented fiber reinforced compacted pond ashes. Int. J. Comput. Eng. Res. Trends 2(12), 1056–1061 (2015)Google Scholar
  3. Bose, B.: Geo engineering properties of expansive soil stabilized with fly ash. Electron. J. Geotech. Eng. 17, 1339–1353 (2012)Google Scholar
  4. Chalermyanont, T., Arrykul, S.: Compacted sand-bentonite mixtures for hydraulic containment liners. Songklanakarin J. Sci. Technol. 27(2), 313–323 (2005)Google Scholar
  5. Cho, W.J., Lee, J.O., Kang, C.H.: Hydraulic conductivity of compacted soil-bentonite mixture for a liner material in landfill facilities. Environmental engineering research-Seoul, Korean Society of Environmental Engineering (2002). doi: 10.4491/eer.2002.7.3.121
  6. Kaya, A., Durukan, S.: Utilization of bentonite-embedded zeolite as clay liner. Appl. Clay Sci. 25(1), 83–91 (2004). doi: 10.1016/j.clay.2004.10.001. ElsevierCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Kayabali, K.: Engineering aspects of a novel landfill liner material: bentonite-amended natural zeolite. Eng. Geol. 46, 105–114 (1997). doi: 10.1016/S0013-7952(96)00102-0. ElsevierCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Mir, B.A.: Effect of fly ash on swelling potential of BC soil. In: Proceedings of Indian Geotechnical Conference on Geotechnical Advances and Noval Geomechanical Applications, Roorkee, 1–9 December 2013Google Scholar
  9. Mishra, A.K., Ohtsubo, M., Li, L.Y., Higashi, T.: Influence of the bentonite on the consolidation behaviour of soil–bentonite mixtures. Carbonates Evaporites 25(1), 43–49 (2010). doi: 10.1007/s13146-010-0006-525(1). SpringerCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Mollamahmutoğlu, M., Yilmaz, Y.: Potential use of fly ash and bentonite mixture as liner or cover at waste disposal areas. Environ. Geol. 40(11–12), 1316–1324 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Satyanarayana, P.V.V.: Utilization of red soil bentonite mixes as clay liner materials. Int. J. Sci. Eng. Res. 4(5), 876–882 (2013)Google Scholar
  12. Shankar, M.U., Phanikumar, B.R.: Correlation studies on index properties of fly ash-stabilised expansive clay liners. Geomechanics and Geoengineering. Taylor & Francis (2012). doi: 10.1080/17486025.2011.631036
  13. Singh, S.P., Sharan, A.: Strength characteristics of compacted pond ash. Geomechanics and Geoengineering, Taylor & Francis (2014). doi: 10.1080/17486025.2013.772661
  14. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Requirements for Hazardous Waste Landfill Design, Construction, and Closure, Publication No. EPA-625/4–89-022, Cincinnati, Ohio (1989)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.National Institute of TechnologyRourkelaIndia
  2. 2.Department of Civil EngineeringNational Institute of TechnologyRourkelaIndia

Personalised recommendations