The Epidemiology of Interstitial Cystitis/Bladder Pain Syndrome (IC/BPS): How Good Was a Study of 30-Years Ago

  • Philip J. HeldEmail author
  • Philip Hanno
  • Frank McCormick


In 1987, Held, Hanno, Wein, Pauly, and Cahn (hereafter Held-Hanno) conducted an epidemiologic study of Interstitial Cystitis (IC) a rare project at the time. (Later published in 1990). The study was to a great extent a response to the relevant clinical experiences of Dr. Hanno, a University of Pennsylvania urologist who had had many interactions with Dr. Vicki Ratner, an orthopedic surgeon and IC patient, who had experienced a life changing prolonged terrible experience with this chronic disease. Consequently Dr. Ratner had become politically and media active, which lead to a brief, 3-h Sunday afternoon workshop at the suggestion of the NIH. This gathering financed and lead by Dr. Alan Wein, chair of Urology at Penn, brought in an economist, Dr. Held, who had a propensity to see the research world through empirical data collection and analysis where his focus had been on end stage renal disease. Some time prior to this meeting, the NIH had requested eight noted urologists to write a short memo answering the question: what do you know about IC? Held’s response on reading these memos was: these distinguished urologists do not agree on anything and besides no one has any data. That was the birth of this $35,000 study (Held-Hanno) funded by two small grants from the Urban Institute and NIDDK of the NIH. This chapter shows that Held-Hanno estimates were validated by most all subsequent studies.



Affordable Care Act


Chronic prostatitis/Chronic pelvic pain syndrome


US Food and Drug Administration


A US Public Program that provides health insurance to the poor. this program is both Federal and State run


The Public US Health Insurance Institution providing medical care to the elderly, disabled, end stage renal disease patients, and selected dependent groups


National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive Diseases and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK)


National Institutes of Health (there are 27 institutes)


Another Name for the Affordable Care Act


Quality of life


Research and Development; A Private American Research Institution


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Philip J. Held
    • 1
    Email author
  • Philip Hanno
    • 2
  • Frank McCormick
    • 3
  1. 1.Division of NephrologyStanford University, School of MedicineStanfordUSA
  2. 2.Stanford University School of MedicineStanfordUSA
  3. 3.Bank of America (Retired)CharlotteUSA

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