Advertisement

Clinical Background of Head and Neck Tumours

  • Tom RoquesEmail author
Chapter
Part of the Clinicians’ Guides to Radionuclide Hybrid Imaging book series (CGRHI)

Abstract

Long-term exposure to carcinogens, e.g., tobacco smoke, chewed betel nut and alcohol are causative factors in many H&N cancers (H&Nca) [1]. There are other more specific causative agents, e.g., hard wood dust in nasal and ethmoid cavity cancers. Such exposure alone however is not sufficient. Other genetic and environmental factors are necessary but their contributory effect is poorly understood. One notable example is the association between human papillo-virus (HPV), probably from oral sex, and oropharyngeal cancer. Most sexually active adults are exposed to HPV, the main virus linked to oropharyngeal cancer [2–4]. Why then only a tiny minority do not clear the virus effectively and it is subsequently a causative factor in cancer?

References

  1. 1.
    Davidson BJ. Epidemiology and etiology. In: Shah JP, editor. American Cancer Society atlas of clinical oncology cancer of the head and neck. Hamilton: BC Decker Inc; 2001.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Chaturvedi AK, Engels EA, Anderson WF, Gillison ML. Incidence trends for human papillomavirus-related and -unrelated oral squamous cell carcinomas in the United States. J Clin Oncol. 2008;26(4):612–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Herrero R, Castellsague X, Pawlita M, et al. Human papillomavirus and oral cancer: the International Agency for Research on Cancer multicenter study. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2003;95(23):1772–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    D’Souza G, Kreimer AR, Viscidi R, et al. Case-control study of human papillomavirus and oropharyngeal cancer. N Engl J Med. 2007;356(19):1944–56.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Prasad ML, Huvos AG. Pathology of head and neck cancer. In: Shah JP, editor. American Cancer Society atlas of clinical oncology cancer of the head and neck. Hamilton: BC Decker Inc; 2001.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Tumours of the nasopharynx. In: Watkinson JC, Gaze MN, Wilson JA, editors. Stell and Maran’s Head and neck surgery. 4th ed. Oxford: Butterworth Heinemann; 2000.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Tumours of the hypopharynx. In: Watkinson JC, Gaze MN, Wilson JA, editors. Stell and Maran’s Head and neck surgery. 4th ed. Oxford: Butterworth Heinemann; 2000.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Tumours of the larynx. In: Watkinson JC, Gaze MN, Wilson JA, editors. Stell and Maran’s Head and neck surgery. 4th ed. Oxford: Butterworth Heinemann; 2000.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Tumours of the nose and sinuses. In: Watkinson JC, Gaze MN, Wilson JA, editors. Stell and Maran’s Head and neck surgery. 4th ed. Oxford: Butterworth Heinemann; 2000.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Larynx. In: AJCC cancer staging manual. 7th ed. New York: Springer; 2010. p. 57–68.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Lip and oral cavity. In: AJCC cancer staging manual. 7th ed. New York: Springer; 2010. p. 29–40.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Do KA JMM, Doherty DA, et al. Second primary tumors in patients with upper aerodigestive tract cancers: joint effects of smoking and alcohol (United States). Cancer Causes Control. 2003;14(2):131–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Argiris A, Brockstein BE, Haraf DJ, et al. Competing causes of death and second primary tumors in patients with locoregionally advanced head and neck cancer treated with chemoradiotherapy. Clin Cancer Res. 2004;10(6):1956–62.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Chuang SC, Scelo G, Tonita JM, et al. Risk of second primary cancer among patients with head and neck cancers: a pooled analysis of 13 cancer registries. Int J Cancer. 2008;123(10):2390–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Norfolk and Norwich University HospitalNorwichUK

Personalised recommendations