The Women’s Movement and Childhood, 1900–1920

  • Berry Mayall


Margaret McMillan was an early member of the Independent Labour Party (from 1893) and a Fabian. She also worked with women’s organisations demanding the vote. In the 1890s, while working as a member of the Bradford School Board, she fought for measures to improve the health of children. She pioneered medical inspection in collaboration with Dr James Kerr, who was appointed as Medical Superintendent of Schools in 1893, and they documented the ill-health of school-age children. Her campaigns for national medical inspection and treatment in schools were important in leading to the Education (Administrative Provisions) Act 1906, which required local education authorities to provide medical inspections in schools. After a move to London, she campaigned for open-air nursery education for children. She established the first medical clinic in Bow; with her sister Rachel, she opened a camp school in Deptford in 1911 (where children slept in the open air) and they started an open-air nursery school there in 1914.


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© The Author(s) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Berry Mayall
    • 1
  1. 1.UCL Institute of EducationLondonUK

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