Advertisement

The Women’s Movement and Childhood, 1900–1920

  • Berry Mayall
Chapter

Abstract

Margaret McMillan was an early member of the Independent Labour Party (from 1893) and a Fabian. She also worked with women’s organisations demanding the vote. In the 1890s, while working as a member of the Bradford School Board, she fought for measures to improve the health of children. She pioneered medical inspection in collaboration with Dr James Kerr, who was appointed as Medical Superintendent of Schools in 1893, and they documented the ill-health of school-age children. Her campaigns for national medical inspection and treatment in schools were important in leading to the Education (Administrative Provisions) Act 1906, which required local education authorities to provide medical inspections in schools. After a move to London, she campaigned for open-air nursery education for children. She established the first medical clinic in Bow; with her sister Rachel, she opened a camp school in Deptford in 1911 (where children slept in the open air) and they started an open-air nursery school there in 1914.

References

  1. Alexander, S. (1995). ‘Bringing women into line with men’: The Women’s Trade Union League 1874–1921. In S. Alexander (Ed.), Becoming a woman. New York: New York University Press.Google Scholar
  2. Black, C. (Ed.). (1983). Married women’s work. London: Virago. First published 1915.Google Scholar
  3. Brehony, K. J. (2000). English revisionist Froebelians and the schooling of the urban poor. In M. Hilton & P. Hirsch (Eds.), Practical visionaries: Women, education and social progress 1790–1930. Harlow: Longman.Google Scholar
  4. Crawford, E. (2002). Enterprising women: The Garretts and their circle. London: Francis Boutle Publishers.Google Scholar
  5. Cunningham, H. (1991). The children of the poor: Representations of childhood since the seventeenth century. Oxford: Blackwell.Google Scholar
  6. Cunningham, P. (2002). Primary education. In R. Aldrich (Ed.), A century of education. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  7. Davies, M. L. (1984). Life as we have known it: By co-operative working women. London: Virago. First published 1931.Google Scholar
  8. Davin, A. (1996). Growing up poor: Home, school and street in London 1870–1914. London: Rivers Oram Press.Google Scholar
  9. Degler, C. N. (1966). Introduction. In C. P. Gilman (Ed.), Women and economics: A study of the economic relation between men and women as a factor in social evolution. New York: Harper Row.Google Scholar
  10. Dyhouse, C. (1989). Feminism and the family in England 1880–1939. Oxford: Blackwell.Google Scholar
  11. Education Enquiry Committee. (1929). The case for nursery schools. London: George Philip and Sons, Ltd.Google Scholar
  12. Forster, E. M. (1928). The machine stops. In E. M. Forster (Ed.), The eternal moment and other stories. London: Sidgwick and Jackson. (In his Preface to this edition, Forster says the stories were written before 1914.)Google Scholar
  13. Gaffin, J., & Thoms, D. (1983). Caring and sharing: The centenary history of the Women’s Co-operative Guild. Manchester: Co-operative Union Ltd.Google Scholar
  14. Gilman, C. P. (1901). Concerning children. London: G. P. Putnams.Google Scholar
  15. Gilman, C. P. (1966). Women and economics: A study of the economic relation between men and women as a factor in social evolution. New York: Harper Row. First published 1898.Google Scholar
  16. Gorst, J. (1906). The children of the nation. London: Methuen.Google Scholar
  17. Hardy, L. (1917). Diary of a free kindergarten. London: Gay and Hancock Ltd.Google Scholar
  18. Harris, B. (1995). The health of the schoolchild: A history of the school medical service in England and Wales. Buckingham: Open University Press.Google Scholar
  19. Hendrick, H. (2003). Child welfare: Historical dimensions, contemporary debate. Bristol: Policy Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Hollis, P. (1994). Ladies elect: Women in English local government 1965–1914. Oxford: Clarendon.Google Scholar
  21. Holmes, E. (1912). What is and what might be. London: Constable and Co. Ltd.Google Scholar
  22. Hurt, J. S. (1979). Elementary schooling and the working classes 1860–1918. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  23. Jebb, E. (1929). Save the child. London: Weardale Press.Google Scholar
  24. Kean, H. (1990a). Challenging the state? The socialist and feminist educational experience 1900–1930. Brighton: The Falmer Press.Google Scholar
  25. Koven, S. (1993). Introduction. In S. Koven & S. Michel (Eds.), Mothers of a new world: Maternalist politics and the origins of welfare states. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  26. Lewis, J. (1986a). Labour and love: Women’s experiences of home and family 1860–1940. Oxford: Basil Blackwell.Google Scholar
  27. Lewis, J. (1986b). Anxieties about the family. In M. Richards & P. Light (Eds.), Children of social worlds. Cambridge: Polity Press.Google Scholar
  28. Liddington, J. (2006). Rebel girls: Their fight for the vote. London: Virago.Google Scholar
  29. Liebschner, J. (1991). Foundations of progressive education: The history of the National Froebel Society. Cambridge: Lutterworth Press.Google Scholar
  30. Lowndes, G. A. N. (1960). Margaret McMillan: The children’s champion. London: Museum Press.Google Scholar
  31. Mappen, E. F. (1983). New introduction. In C. Black (Ed.), Married women’s work. London: Virago.Google Scholar
  32. de la Mare, U. (2008, Autumn). Necessity and rage: The factory women’s strikes in Bermondsey 1911. History Workshop Journal, 66, 62–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. McMillan, M. (1907). Labour and childhood. London: Swan Sonnenschein and Co. Ltd.Google Scholar
  34. McMillan, M. (1911). The child and the state. Manchester: The National Labour Press Ltd.Google Scholar
  35. Morrow, V. (1992). A sociological study of the economic roles of children, with particular reference to Birmingham and Cambridgeshire. Unpublished PhD thesis, University of Cambridge.Google Scholar
  36. Redmond, J. (1970). Introduction. In W. Morris (Ed.), News from nowhere. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.Google Scholar
  37. Reid, F. (1966). Socialist Sunday schools in Britain 1892–1939. International Review of Social History, 11(1), 18–47.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Rose, J. (2002). The intellectual life of the British working class. New Haven: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  39. Rowbotham, S. (2011). Dreamers of a new day: Women who invented the twentieth century. London: Verso.Google Scholar
  40. Segal, L. (1990). Slow motion: Changing masculinities, changing men. London: Virago.Google Scholar
  41. Steedman, C. (1988). ‘The mother made conscious’: The historical development of a primary school pedagogy. In M. Woodhead & A. McGrath (Eds.), Family, school and society: A reader. London: Hodder and Stoughton.Google Scholar
  42. Steedman, C. (1990). Childhood, culture and class in Britain: Margaret McMillan 1860–1931. London: Virago.Google Scholar
  43. Stewart, W. A. C. (1968). The education innovators, volume two: Progressive schools 1881–1967. London: Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Sutherland, G. (2006). Faith, duty and the power of mind: The Clough and their circle 1820–1960. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  45. Taylor, B. (1983). Eve and the New Jerusalem. London: Virago.Google Scholar
  46. Thorne, A. (2008). A history of the British Labour Party (3rd ed.). London: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  47. Van der Eyken, W. (Ed.). (1973). Education, the child and society: A documentary history 1900–1973. Harmondsworth: Penguin.Google Scholar
  48. Vicinus, M. (1994). Independent women: Work and community for single women 1850–1920. London: Virago.Google Scholar
  49. Wells, H. G. (1917). A modern Utopia. London: Thomas Nelson and Sons Ltd.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Berry Mayall
    • 1
  1. 1.UCL Institute of EducationLondonUK

Personalised recommendations