This chapter concludes the research presented in preceding chapters by emphasizing that the state is the only feasible authority able to carry out its meta-governance functions in fisheries management. Through its significant support for fishers’ collective action, in co-management arrangements the role of the state remains crucial. The involvement of fishers as a group of resource users does not mean that the role of the state should be reduced to be an equal actor with the former. Rather, the state should adopt a meta-governance role to ensure that the governance operates efficiently with sustainable outcomes. The chapter draws together key findings from the research: first, co-management scholars have underestimated the capacities of the state in supporting fishing communities; secondly, state capacities matter in promoting collective action; and thirdly, the co-management arrangements are not polycentric, but state-centric.
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