• Annette Vegas


  • Normal pericardium is an avascular sac composed of inner serous and outer fibrous pericardium. The serous pericardium comprises the (a) outer parietal layer adherent to the fibrous pericardium and the (b) inner visceral layer that reflects back onto the heart surface.

  • The potential space between the visceral and serous parietal pericardium is the pericardial cavity. Normally, 15–50 cm3 of clear pericardial fluid is in the pericardial sac to reduce friction between pericardial surfaces.

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© Springer International Publishing AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Annette Vegas
    • 1
  1. 1.Professor of Anesthesiology, Former Director of Perioperative TEE, Department of AnesthesiaToronto General Hospital, University of TorontoTorontoCanada

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