Variants, Foreign Material, Artifacts, Masses, Endocarditis

  • Annette Vegas


  • Normal structures or their variants may mimic pathology resulting in errors in interpretation that may cause unnecessary clinical interventions. These imaging pitfalls are generally categorized as anatomic structures, echo-free spaces, or foreign material. Careful imaging using multiple imaging planes and knowledge of variants may help differentiate these from actual pathology.

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Annette Vegas
    • 1
  1. 1.Professor of Anesthesiology, Former Director of Perioperative TEE, Department of AnesthesiaToronto General Hospital, University of TorontoTorontoCanada

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