Congenital Heart Disease

  • Annette Vegas


  • Congenital heart disease (CHD) is a problem in the structure of the heart that is present at birth.

  • Congenital heart lesions may have normal or abnormal relationships of chambers, valves, and vessels that may alter blood flow in the heart.

  • Different classification systems exist for CHD.

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Annette Vegas
    • 1
  1. 1.Professor of Anesthesiology, Former Director of Perioperative TEE, Department of AnesthesiaToronto General Hospital, University of TorontoTorontoCanada

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