Clerical Fascism: Portugal, Spain, and France

Part of the Archival Insights into the Evolution of Economics book series (AIEE)


In addition to Austria (1934–1945) and General Pinochet’s Chile (1973–1990), this chapter examines some common White Terror characteristics of three prominent clerical fascist regimes: António de Oliveira Salazar’s Portugal (1932–1968), General Francisco Franco’s Spain (1936–1975), and Marshal Philippe Pétain’s Vichy France (1940–1945). Pinochet destroyed democracy because an ‘effective anticommunist struggle is unthinkable in the context of musty democratic patterns’; while Hayek explained that dictatorship was a ‘means of establishing a stable democracy and liberty, clean of impurities,’ democracy needs ‘a good cleaning’ by ‘strong governments.’ The drive for ‘purification’ also dominated Franco’s Spain.


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Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of EconomicsStanford UniversityStanfordUSA

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