Angola: Civil Society Actors and Petroleum Management
Angola has enjoyed few development benefits from its petroleum resources. This chapter describes how the ruling party’s periodic clampdowns on civil society and increasingly heavy-handed tactics serve to limit the autonomy of many actors to influence public debate. As a result, both reformist and confrontational strategies are unlikely to have a significant impact on the government’s management of petroleum resources. An important aspect of the situation in Angola is the polarization of society and the country’s decades of civil war, driven in part by external powers using different Angolan political-military blocs as proxies. In that regard, there are similarities with the polarization of several Latin American oil- and gas-producing states, but the role of external political influence and the level of violence have probably been greater in Angola. Angola also resembles the post-Soviet states in that there is a relatively diverse and active civil society, but some of the main civil society actors have been created, promoted or co-opted by the state.
KeywordsAngola Natural resources Oil Gas Petroleum governance Civil society Resource curse Authoritarianism DemocracyPolarization Co-optation Foreign agents
- ADRA and OPSA. 2010. Orçamento Geral do Estado 2011: Elementos para o debate. Luanda: Acção para o Desenvolvimento Rural e Ambiente and Observatório Político e Social de Angola.Google Scholar
- Amnesty International. 2014. Punishing Dissent: Freedom of Association, Assembly and Expression in Angola. https://www.amnesty.org/download/Documents/4000/afr120042014en.pdf. Accessed on 26 August 2015.
- ———. 2015. Urgent Action: Peaceful Activists Still Detained without Charge. https://www.amnesty.org/download/Documents/AFR1222952015ENGLISH.pdf. Accessed on 26 August 2015.
- Angola Monitor. 2015. Action for Southern Africa. Angola Monitor. http://www.actsa.org/Pictures/UpImages/Angola%20Monitor%203_2015.pdf. Accessed on 14 August 2015.
- Cabeche, Aristides, and David Smith. 2013. Angola Accused of “Banning” Islam as Mosques Closed. The Guardian. http://www.theguardian.com/world/2013/nov/28/angola-accused-banning-islam-mosques. Accessed on 31 August 2015.
- Hodges, Tony. 2004. Angola: Anatomy of an Oil State. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.Google Scholar
- Marques de Morais, Rafael. 2011. Diamantes de Sangue: Corrupção e Tortura em Angola. Lisbon: Tinta da China.Google Scholar
- ———. 2014. Measures in Favor and against Mosques in Angola. Maka Angola. https://www.makaangola.org/2014/04/measures-in-favor-and-against-mosques-in-angola http://www.makaangola.org/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=11246. Accessed on 31 August 2015.
- Mouan, Liliane Chantal. 2015. Governing Angola’s Oil Sector: The Illusion of Revenue Transparency? PhD Thesis, Coventry University.Google Scholar
- ———. 2016. The Petro-Developmental State in Africa: Making Oil Work in Angola, Nigeria and the Gulf of Guinea. London: Hurst.Google Scholar
- ———. 2017. State-Led Industrial Development, Structural Transformation and Elite-Led Plunder: Angola (2002–2013) as a Developmental State. Development Policy Review [online].Google Scholar
- Ovadia, Jesse Salah, and Sylvia Croese. 2017. Post-War Angola: The Dual Nature of Growth without Development in an Oil-Rich State. In Towards Democratic Developmental States in Southern Africa, ed. Godfrey Kanyenze, Herbert Jauch, Alice D. Kanengoni, Masego Madzwamuse, and Deprose Muchena. Harare: Weaver Press.Google Scholar
- Pinto de Andrade, Justino. 2009. The Process of Change in Angola: Civil Society, Political Parties, Economic Factors and General Population. In Southern Africa: Civil Society, Politics and Donor Strategie, ed. Nuno Vidal and Patrick Chabal. Lisbon: Firmamento.Google Scholar
- Reed, Kristin. 2009. Crude Existence: Environment and the Politics of Oil in Northern Angola. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
- Soares de Oliveira, Ricardo. 2015. Magnificent and Beggar Land: Angola since the Civil War. London: Hurst.Google Scholar
- Vines, Alex, Nicholas Shaxson, and Lisa Rimli. 2005. Angola: Drivers of Change: An Overview. London: Royal Institute of International Affairs.Google Scholar