Nigeria: The Role of Civil Society in the Politics of Oil Governance and Revenue Management
Along with Angola and Venezuela, Nigeria appears to be a classic case of the resource curse. According to this chapter, the main aspects of petroleum policy that civil society seeks to influence in Nigeria include accountability, the upstream and downstream operations of the oil industry and socio-economic policy. Trade unions are key civil society actors seeking to influence oil policy in Nigeria. Other relevant organizations include Revenue Watch International (RWI), the Nigerian Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative (NEITI) and environmental rights and pro-democracy groups such as Environmental Rights Action (ERA), Stakeholder Democracy Network (SDN) and the Movement for the Survival of the Ogoni People (MOSOP). The media also play an important role in efforts to influence petroleum policy in Nigeria. These and other organizations set the agenda for the debates around oil and national development—through published reports and public statements, newspaper announcements, television programmes, public demonstrations, press releases, presentations at workshops and position papers presented to government agencies and international organizations, through social media such as Facebook, and by mobilizing people through public demonstrations. However, despite the vibrancy of civil-society activism and the relative freedom of speech expressed through the media and social media, the general public has had limited influence on the levels of corruption and mismanagement of oil and gas revenues in Nigeria.
KeywordsNigeria Natural resources Oil Gas Petroleum governance Civil society Media EITI Revenue Watch Niger Delta Democracy Authoritarianism
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