Partial Nutrient Budget from Lowland Forests Converted to Oil Palm and Rubber Plantations in Sumatra, Indonesia
Forest conversion to agricultural land may affect nutrient budget due to different soil management intensity. Our study aimed to assess partial nutrient budget from forest converted to rubber and oil palm plantations in Jambi Province, Sumatra, Indonesia. The research investigated four land uses: lowland forest and jungle rubber (as reference) and the converted land uses of rubber and oil palm plantations in loam and clay Acrisol soil landscapes, with four replicates in each site, except in oil palm plantation with three replicates. Partial nutrient budgets were quantified from nutrient input (bulk precipitation and fertilizers) and output (leaching and harvest) for N, P, K, Ca, Mg and Na. Annual leaching fluxes were the main output pathways for N, P and base cations in the reference land uses, except for P in jungle rubber sites where the major output pathway was harvest export. The high nutrient output through leaching losses and harvest export resulted in the lowest annual partial budgets of Ca and Mg in oil palm plantations than in the other land uses in both landscapes. Proper soil management is needed to minimize the net negatives balances and their effect on sustainability of oil palm plantations.
KeywordsForest conversion Nutrient budgets Oil palm Rubber
We thank the village leaders, smallholders, PT PN VI, PT Humusindo, PT REKI and Bukit Duabelas National Park for letting us use the sites. Funding was provided by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG) to the German-Indonesian CRC 990, subproject A05. Kurniawan received a postgraduate scholarship from the Indonesian Directorate General of Higher Education. We are especially grateful to our Indonesian assistants and the rangers of the forest areas. We acknowledge the Indonesia Meteorological, Climatological and Geophysical Agency and the subprojects A03 and B06. We also thank Dirk Böttger, Andrea Bauer, Kerstin Langs and Martina Knaust for their assistance. This study was conducted using the research permits (215/SIP/FRP/SM/VI/2012 and 44/EXT/SIP/FRP/SM/V/2013), recommended by RISTEK, Indonesia, and the collection permits (2703/IPH.1/KS.02/XI/2012 and S.13/KKH-2/2013), recommended by LIPI and issued by PHKA, Indonesia.
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