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Discography

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Abstract

The lumbar disc has been considered as an important cause of low back pain or radiculopathy since 1934. Lumbar discography has been performed since 1948. Cervical and thoracic discography are performed to a lesser extent. However, the accuracy and value of discography have been debated in the lumbar region and more so in the cervical and thoracic regions.

The evidence for accuracy of provocation discography is Level III for lumbar discography, whereas it is Level IV for cervical discography, and there is no evidence available for thoracic discography. Multiple complications also have been described with discography specifically in the cervical region.

Keywords

  • Provocation discography
  • Cervical discography
  • Thoracic discography
  • Lumbar discography
  • Anesthetic discography
  • False-positive rate

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Acknowledgments

This book chapter is modified and updated from previous book chapters “Lumbar Discography,” “Cervical Discography,” and “Thoracic Discography” by Frank J.E. Falco, MD, et al. in Interventional Techniques in Chronic Spinal Pain published by ASIPP Publishing. Permission has been obtained from ASIPP Publishing.

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Manchikanti, L., Falco, F.J.E., Singh, V., Hirsch, J.A. (2018). Discography. In: Manchikanti, L., Kaye, A., Falco, F., Hirsch, J. (eds) Essentials of Interventional Techniques in Managing Chronic Pain. Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-60361-2_15

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