Indoor Microclimate



The study of indoor microclimate requires a specific set of tools to measure the physical variables and interpret the results. This chapter, in its first part, describes how to study Historic Indoor Microclimate. In particular, the main physical variables, the standard values, and the methods to measure them are described. Moreover the concept of thermal comfort is outlined, with its variables and comfort indexes, with particular attention to heritage buildings. The second part of the chapter gives an account of the interpretation of data on physical variables obtained from monitoring campaigns, as well as of the instruments to interpret the data, such as graphics and simulations.


  1. ASHRAE (2011) Museums, galleries, archives, and libraries. In: ASHRAE applications handbook. American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Engineers, AtlantaGoogle Scholar
  2. ASHRAE Standard 55-2014, Thermal environmental conditions for human occupancy. American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers, AtlantaGoogle Scholar
  3. ASHRAE Standard 62.1 (2016) Ventilation for Acceptable Indoor Air QualityGoogle Scholar
  4. Baer NS, Banks PN (1985) Indoor air pollution: effects on cultural and historical materials. Int J Mus Manage Curatorship 4:9–20Google Scholar
  5. Balocco C, Calzolari R (2008) Natural light design for an ancient buildings: a case study. J Cult Heritage 9:172–178CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Boarin P, Guglielmino D, Zuppiroli M (2014) Certified sustainability for heritage buildings: development of the new rating system GBC Historic Building. In: REHAB 2014 – Proceedings of the international conference on preservation, maintenance and rehabilitation of historic buildings and structures, 2014, pp 1109–1120Google Scholar
  7. Camuffo D (1998) Microclimate for cultural heritage. Elsevier, AmsterdamGoogle Scholar
  8. Camuffo D, Bernardi A, Sturaro G, Valentino A (2002) The microclimate inside the Pollaiolo and Botticelli rooms in the Uffizi gallery, Florence. J Cult Heritage 3(2):155–156CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Camuffo D, della Valle A (2007) Church heating: a balance between conservation and thermal comfort, Contribution to Experts Roundtable on Sustainable Climate Mangament Strategies, April 2007, Tenerif, Spain. The Getty Conservation InstituteGoogle Scholar
  10. Camuffo D, Pagan E, Bernardi A, Becherini F (2004) The impact of heating, lighting and people in re-using historical buildings: a case study. J Cult Heritage 5(4):409–416CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Camuffo D, Pagan E, Rissanen S, Bratasz L, Kozłowski R, Camuffo M, della Valle A (2010) An advanced church heating system favourable to artworks: a contribution to European standardisation. J Cult Heritage 11(2):205–219Google Scholar
  12. Cataldo R, De Donno A, De Nunzio G, Leucci G, Nuzzo L, Siviero S (2005) Integrated methods for analysis of deterioration of cultural heritage: the Crypt of “Cattedrale di Otranto”. J Cult Heritage 6:29–38CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. CEN/TS 16163 (2014) Conservation of cultural heritage—guidelines and proce-duresfor choosing appropriate lighting for indoor exhibitions. European Committee for Standardization, BrusselsGoogle Scholar
  14. Corgnati SP, Fabi V, Filippi M (2009) A methodology for microclimatic quality evaluation in museums: application to a temporary exhibit. Build Environ 44:1253–1260CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. D’Agostino V, d’Ambrosio Alfano FR, Palella BI, Riccio G (2015) The museum environment: a protocol for evaluationof microclimatic conditions. Energy Build 95:124–129CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. de Guichen G (1995) La conservation préventive: un changement profond de men-talité. In: Cahier d’étude ICOM. International Council of Museums, Paris, pp 4–6Google Scholar
  17. de Santoli L (2015) Guidelines on energy efficiency of cultural heritage. Energy Build 86:534–540Google Scholar
  18. EN 15757 (2010) Conservation of cultural property—specifications for temperature and relative humidity to limit climate-induced mechanical damage in organic hygroscopic materials. European Committee for Standardization, BrusselsGoogle Scholar
  19. EN 15758 (2010) Conservation of cultural property—procedures and instruments for measuring temperatures of the air and the surfaces of objects. European Committee for Standardization, BrusselsGoogle Scholar
  20. EN 15759-1 (2011) Conservation of cultural property - Indoor climate - Part 1: Guidelines for heating churches, chapels and other places of worshipGoogle Scholar
  21. EN 16242 (2012) Conservation of cultural heritage—procedures and instruments for measuring humidity in the air and moisture exchanges between air and cultural property. European Committee for Standardization, BrusselsGoogle Scholar
  22. Fanger PO (1970) Thermal comfort-analysis and applications in environmental engineering. Danish Technical Press, CopenhagenGoogle Scholar
  23. Ferdyn-Grygierek J (2014) Indoor environmental quality in the museum buildings and its effect on heating and cooling demand. Energy Build 85:32–44Google Scholar
  24. Frontczak W, Wargocki P (2011) Literature survey on how different factors influence human comfort in indoor environments. Build Environ 46:922–937CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Glossary of terms for thermal physiology (1987) Pflugers. Archiv 410:567–587Google Scholar
  26. Grzywacz CM (2006) Monitoring for gaseous pollutants in museum environments. In: Maggio E (ed) Tools in conservation. Getty Conservation Institute, Los AngelesGoogle Scholar
  27. Gysels K, Delalieux F, Deutsch F, Van Grieken R, Camuffo D, Bernardi A, Sturaro G, Busse H, Wieser M (2004) Indoor environment and conservation in the Royal Museum of Fine Arts, Antwerp, Belgium. J Cult Heritage 5(2):221–230CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Höppe P (1999) The physiological equivalent temperature – a universal index for the biometeorological assessment of the thermal environment. Int J Biometeorol 43:71–75CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Huijbregts Z, Kramer RP, Martens MHJ, van Schijndel AWM, Schelen HL (2012) A proposed method to assess the damage risk of future climate change to museum objects in historic buildings. Build Environ 55:43–56CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. ISO 13790 Energy performance of buildings – Calculation of energy use for space heating and coolingGoogle Scholar
  31. ISO 7726 Ergonomics of the thermal environment – Instruments for measuring physical quantitiesGoogle Scholar
  32. ISO 7730 Ergonomics of the thermal environment – Analytical determination and interpretation of thermal comfort using calculation of the PMV and PPD indices and local thermal comfort criteriaGoogle Scholar
  33. ISO 8996 Ergonomics of the thermal environment. Determination of metabolic rateGoogle Scholar
  34. ISO 9920 Ergonomics of the thermal environment — Estimation of thermal insulation and water vapour resistance of a clothing ensembleGoogle Scholar
  35. Kramer RP, Maas MPE, Martens MHJ, van Schijndel AWM, Schellen HL (2015) Energy conservation in museum using different setpoint strategies: a case study for a state-of-art museum using building simulation. Appl Energy 158:446–458CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Krupinska B, Van Grieken R, De Wael K (2013) Air quality monitoring in a museum for preventive conservation: results of a three-year study in the Plantin-Moretus Museum in Antwerp. Belgium Microchem J 110:350–360CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. La Gennusa M, Lascari G, Rizzo G, Scaccianoce G (2008) Conflict need of the thermal indoor environment of museums: in search of a practical compromise. J Cult Heritage 9:125–134CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. La Gennusa M, Rizzo G, Scaccianoce G, Nicoletti F (2005) Control of in-door environments in heritage buildings: experimental measurements in an old Italian museum and proposal of a methodology. J Cult Heritage 6(2):147–155CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Lankester P, Brimblecombe P (2012) Future thermo hygrometric climate within historic houses. J Cult Heritage 13:1–6CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Litti G, Audenaert A, Braet J, Fabbri K, Weeren A (2015) Synthetic scan and simultaneous index aimed at the indoor environmental quality evaluation and certification for people and artworks in heritage buildings. In: 6th International Building Physics Conference, IBPC 2015, Energy Procedia 78:1365–1370Google Scholar
  41. Lucchi E (2016) Multidisciplinary risk-based analysis for supporting the decision making process on conservation, energy efficiency, and human comfort in museum buildings, Journal of Cultural Heritage. Journal of Cultural Heritage - Available online 24 June 2016, In Press, Corrected Proof — Note to usersGoogle Scholar
  42. Martinez-Molina A, Tort-Ausina I, Cho S, Vivancos JL (2016) Energy efficiency and thermal comfort in historic buildings: a review. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Rev 62:70–85CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Mazzarella L (2015) Energy retrofit of historic and existing buildings: the legislative and regulatory point of view. Energy Build 95:23–31CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Mecklenburg MF, Tumosa CS (1999) Temperature and relative humidity effects on the mechanical and chemical stability of collections. ASHRAE J 41(4):77–82Google Scholar
  45. MIBACT (2001) Decreto Ministeriale 10 maggio 2001, Atto di indirizzo sui criteri tecnico-scientifici e sugli standard di funzionamento e sviluppo dei musei, (Ministero per i Beni e le Attività Culturali e de Turismo-MIBACT)Google Scholar
  46. Monetti V, Davin E, Fabrizio E, Andrè P, Filippi M (2015) Calibration of building energy simulation models based on optimization: a case study. Energy Proc 78:2971–2976Google Scholar
  47. Pavlogeorgatos G (2003) Environmental parameters in museums. Build Environ 38(12):1457–1462CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Penica M, Svetlana G, Murugl V (2015) Revitalization of historic buildings and an approach to preserve cultural and historical heritage. Proc Eng 117:883–890CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. prEN 16682 (2013) Conservation of cultural heritage—guide to the measurements of moisture content in materials constituting movable and immovable cultural heritage. European Committee for Standardization, BrusselsGoogle Scholar
  50. Silva HE, Henriques FMA (2015) Preventive conservation of historic buildings in temperate climates. The importance of a risk-based analysis on the decision-making process. Energy Build 107:26–36CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Tétreault J (2003) Airborne pollutants in museums, galleries and archives: risk assessment. Control strategies and preservation management. Canadian Conservation Institute, OttawaGoogle Scholar
  52. Thomson G (1986) The museum environment. Elsevier, AmsterdamGoogle Scholar
  53. Troi A, Bastian Z (2014) Energy efficiency solutions for historic building. A handbook. Birkhauser, ISBN 9783038216469Google Scholar
  54. UNI 10829 (1999) Works of art of historical importance. Ambient condition for the conservation. Measurement and analysis. UNI Ente Nazionale Italiano di Unificazione, MilanoGoogle Scholar
  55. Vieites E, Vassileva I, Arias JE (2015) European initiative towards improving energy efficiency in existing and historic buildings. Energy Proc 75:1679–1685CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. WHO (2006) World Health Organisation, WHO Guidelines for Indoor Air QualityGoogle Scholar
  57. WHO (2008) Guidelines for indoor air quality: dampness and mould. World Health OrganizationGoogle Scholar
  58. WHO (2010) World Health Organisation, WHO Guidelines for Indoor Air Quality: Selected Pollutants, 2010 [20th August 2011]; Available from:
  59. Zivkovic V, Dzikic V (2015) Return to basics - Environmental management for museum collections and historic houses. Energy Build 95:116–123CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of ArchitectureUniversity of BolognaBolognaItaly

Personalised recommendations