Gender and Sexual Orders Making the New Society

  • José Fernando Serrano-Amaya
Part of the Global Queer Politics book series (GQP)


This chapter brings together the main arguments of the book and highlights the need for new conceptualisations. Critique of conventional ways of thinking about anti-homosexual violence, conflicts and political transitions is connected with the need for knowledge for political struggles. This research supports an understanding of political homophobia as a gendered strategy, in particular in its connection with the hegemonic masculinity that produces and reproduces wars and conflicts. Yet, upon considering a more relational approach to gender, such a focus on masculinist struggles as a core issue in political homophobia needs to be reviewed. From the struggles for dignity, the discussion moves away from the need to produce evidence and explanations, to the question of how violence becomes a subjective experience, as well as reasons for collective articulation. The chapter argues for approaches that take into account the interactions between violence, sexuality and armed conflicts in their historicity, instead of viewing them as isolated objects of study and intervention.


  1. Adam, Barry. 1987. The Rise of a Gay and Lesbian Movement. Boston: Twayne Publishers.Google Scholar
  2. Adorno, Theodor W. 1950. The Authoritarian Personality, Trans. and ed. Theodor W. Adorno, 1st ed. New York: Harper.Google Scholar
  3. Allport, Gordon. 1954. The Nature of Prejudice. Cambridge: Adison-Wesley, Beacon Press.Google Scholar
  4. Alvah, Donna. 2011. Reconstructing Patriarchy After the Great War: Women, Gender, and Postwar Reconciliation Between Nations. Peace & Change 36 (1): 140–143. doi: 10.1111/j.1468-0130.2010.00682.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Babb, Florence E. 2003. Out in Nicaragua: Local and Transnational Desires After the Revolution. Cultural Anthropology 18 (3): 304–328.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Belloni, Roberto. 2001. Civil Society and Peacebuilding in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Journal of Peace Research 38 (2): 163–180.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bennett, Jane. 2010. “Circles and Circles”: Notes in African Feminist Debates Around Gender and Violence in the c21. Feminist Africa 14: 21–47.Google Scholar
  8. Bérubé, Allan. 1990. Coming Out Under Fire: The History of Gay Men and Women in World War Two. New York: Free Press.Google Scholar
  9. Bourke, Joanna. 1996. Dismembering the Male: Men’s Bodies, Britain and the Great War. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  10. Cameron, Edwin. 1993. Sexual Orientation and the Constitution: A Test Case for Human Rights. South African Law Journal 110 (3): 450–472.Google Scholar
  11. Caprioli, Mary. 2000. Gendered Conflict. Journal of Peace Research 37 (1): 51–68.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Cockburn, C. 2010. Gender Relations as Causal in Militarization and War. International Feminist Journal of Politics 12 (2): 139–157. doi: 10.1080/14616741003665169.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Colombia-Diversa. 2008. Derechos humanos de lesbianas, gays, bisexuales y transgeneristas en Colombia 2006–2007. Bogotá: Colombia Diversa.Google Scholar
  14. ———. 2013. Impunidad sin fin. Derechos humanos de lesbianas, gays, bisexuales y personas trans en Colombia 2010–2011. Bogotá: Colombia Diversa.Google Scholar
  15. Connell, Raewyn. 1987. Gender and Power: Society, the Person and Sexual Politics. Sydney: Allen & Unwin.Google Scholar
  16. ———. 2000. Arms and the Man: Using the New Research on Masculinity to Understand Violence and Promote Peace in the Contemporary World. In Male Roles, Masculinities and Violence: A Culture of Peace Perspective, ed. Ingeborg Breines, Raewyn Connell, and Ingrid Eide, 21–33. Paris: UNESCO Publishing.Google Scholar
  17. ———. 2005. Masculinities. 2nd ed. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  18. ———. 2009. Gender. Cambridge, Oxford, Malden: Polity.Google Scholar
  19. ———. 2012. Gender, Health and Theory: Conceptualizing the Issue, in Local and World Perspective. Social Science & Medicine 74 (11): 1675–1683. doi: 10.1016/j.socscimed.2011.06.006.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Cupples, Julie. 2004. Counter-Revolutionary Women: Gender and Reconciliation in Post-war Nicaragua. Gender and Development 12 (3): 8–18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Curiel Pichardo, Rosa Ynés (Ochy). 2010. El régimen heterosexual de la nación. Un análisis antropológico lésbico-feminista de la Constitución Política de Colombia de 1991. Maestría en Antropología, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Facultad de Ciencias Humanas, Departamento de Antropología.Google Scholar
  22. Currier, Ashley. 2010. Political Homophobia in Postcolonial Namibia. Gender & Society 24 (1): 110–129.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Das, Veena. 1995. Critical Events: An Anthropological Perspective on Contemporary India. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  24. ———. 2008. Violence, Gender, and Subjectivity. Annual Review of Anthropology 37 (1): 283–299.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Di Silvio, Lorenzo. 2011. Correcting Corrective Rape: Carmichele and Developing South Africa’s Affirmative Obligations to Prevent Violence Against Women. Georgetown Law Journal 99 (5): 1469.Google Scholar
  26. Duckitt, John. 2010. Historical Overview. In Prejudice, Stereotyping and Discrimination: Theoretical and Empirical Overview, ed. John F. Dovidio, Miles Hewstone, Peter Glick, and Victoria Esses, 29–44. London: Sage.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. El-Bushra, Judy. 2007. Feminism, Gender, and Women’s Peace Activism. Development and Change 38 (1): 131–147.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Fassin, Didier. 2008. The Embodied Past. From Paranoid Style to Politics of Memory in South Africa. Social Anthropology 16 (3): 312–328. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-8676.2008.00045.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Fussell, Paul. 1975. The Great War and Modern Memory. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  30. Global-Rights, Organization-LOGOS, and Organization-Q. c2006. The Status of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender Rights in Bosnia and Herzegovina: A Shadow Report.Google Scholar
  31. Halladay, Laurel. 2004. A Lovely War: Male to Female Cross-dressing and Canadian Military Entertainment in World War II. Journal of Homosexuality 46 (3/4): 19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Haug, Frigga. 1987. Female Sexualization: A Collective Work of Memory. London: Verso.Google Scholar
  33. Hill, Darryl, and Brian Willoughby. 2005. The Development and Validation of the Genderism and Transphobia Scale. Sex Roles 53 (7): 531–544.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. HRW. 2011. “We’ll Show You You’re a Woman” Violence and Discrimination Against Black Lesbians and Transgender Men in South Africa. Washington, DC: HRW.Google Scholar
  35. Humphrey, Michael, and Estela Valverde. 2008. Human Rights Politics and Injustice: Transitional Justice in Argentina and South Africa. The International Journal of Transitional Justice 2 (1): 83–105. doi: 10.1093/ijtj/ijn002.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Irving, Rim. 1987. Nicaragua: Lesbian Sandinista. Off Our Backs 17: 9–9.Google Scholar
  37. Jennings, R. 2006. The Gateways Club and the Emergence of a Post-second World War Lesbian Subculture. Social History 31 (2): 206–225. doi: 10.1080/03071020600562959.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Karame, K., and T. Tryggestad. 2000. Gender Perspectives on Peace and Conflict Studies. Oslo: Norwegian Institute of International Affairs.Google Scholar
  39. Katz, I. 1991. Gordon Allport’s The Nature of Prejudice. Political Psychology 12 (1): 125–157.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Keating, Christine. 2013. On the Interplay of State Homophobia and Homoprotectionism. In Global Homophobia, ed. Michael Bosia and Meredith Weiss, 246–254. Urbana, Chicago, Springfield: University of Illinois.Google Scholar
  41. Lazreg, Marnia. 1990. Gender and Politics in Algeria: Unraveling the Religious Paradigm. Signs: Journal of Women in Culture and Society 15 (4): 755–780.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Lind, Amy, and Christine Keating. 2013. Navigating the Left Turn. International Feminist Journal of Politics 15 (4): 515–533.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Lysaght, Karen, and Rob Kitchin. 2004. Sexual Citizenship in Belfast, Northern Ireland. Gender, Place and Culture: A Journal of Feminist Geography 11 (1): 83–103.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. MacKinnon, Catharine A. 2006. Are Women Human?: And Other International Dialogues. Cambridge: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  45. Massoud, Markd. 2003. The Evolution of Gay Rights in South Africa. Peace Review 15 (3): 301–307.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Miall, Hugh, Oliver Ramsbotham, and Tom Woodhouse. 2003. Contemporary Conflict Resolution. Cambridge: Polity. Original Edition, 1999.Google Scholar
  47. Mies, Maria. 1998. Patriarchy and Accumulation on a World Scale: Women in the International Division of Labour. London: Zed.Google Scholar
  48. Mikuš, Marek. 2011. “State Pride”: Politics of LGBT Rights and Democratisation in “European Serbia”. East European Politics & Societies 25 (4): 834–851. doi: 10.1177/0888325411426886.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Morrell, Robert, and Sandra Stuart. 2005. Men in the Third World. Postcolonial Perspectives on Masculinities. In Handbook of Studies on Men & Masculinities, ed. Michael S. Kimmel, Jeff Hearn, and Raewyn Connell, 90–113. Thousand Oaks, London: Sage Publications.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Moser, Caroline, and Fiona Clark, eds. 2001. Victims, Perpetrators or Actors? Gender, Armed Conflict and Political Violence. London: Zed Books.Google Scholar
  51. Moser, Caroline, and Cathy McIlwaine. 2001. Gender and Social Capital in Contexts of Political Violence: Community Perceptions from Colombia and Guatemala. In Victims, Perpetrators or Actors? Gender, Armed Conflict and Political Violence, ed. Caroline Moser and Fiona Clark, 178–200. London, New York: Zed Books.Google Scholar
  52. Msibi, Thabo. 2011. The Lies We Have Been Told: On (Homo) Sexuality in Africa. Africa Today 58 (1): 54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Obradors-Campos, Miguel. 2011. Deconstructing Biphobia. Journal of Bisexuality 11 (2–3): 207–226.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Oosterhoff, Pauline, Prisca Zwanikken, and Evert Ketting. 2004. Sexual Torture of Men in Croatia and Other Conflict Situations: An Open Secret. Reproductive Health Matters 12 (23): 68–77.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Pankhurst, Donna. 2003. The ‘Sex War’ and Other Wars: Towards a Feminist Approach to Peace Building. Development in Practice 13 (2/3): 154–177.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. ———, ed. 2008a. Gendered Peace: Women’s Struggles for Post-war Justice and Reconciliation, ed. United Nations Research Institute for Social Development, vol. 2. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  57. ———. 2008b. Post-war Backlash Violence Against Women. What Can “Masculinity” Explain? In Gendered Peace: Women’s Struggles for Post-war Justice and Reconciliation, ed. Donna Pankhurst, 293–320. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  58. Puar, Jasbir. 2007. Terrorist Assemblages. Homonationalism in Queer Times. Durham, London: Duke University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Richardson, Diane, and Surya Monro. 2013. Public Duty and Private Prejudice: Sexualities Equalities and Local Government. The Sociological Review 61 (1): 131–152. doi: 10.1111/1467-954X.12007.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Rosenbloom, Rachel, and IGLHRC. 1996. Unspoken Rules: Sexual Orientation and Women’s Human Rights. London: Cassell.Google Scholar
  61. Roseneil, Sasha. 2000. Common Women, Uncommon Practices: The Queer Feminisms of Greenham. London: Cassell.Google Scholar
  62. Sagasta, S. 2001. State of the Art: Lesbian Movements in Former Yugoslavia I. Lesbians in Croatia. European Journal of Women’s Studies 8 (3): 357–372.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Segal, Lynne. 2008. Gender, War and Militarism: Making and Questioning the Links. Feminist Review 88 (1): 21–35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Serrano-Amaya, José Fernando. 2004. Queering Conflict: The Invisibility of Gender and Sexual Diversity in Peace Building. Master in Conflict Resolution, Department of Peace Studies, University of Bradford.Google Scholar
  65. ———. 2011. Challenging or Reshaping Heteronormativity with Public Policies? A Case Study from Bogota, Colombia. Working Papers. Brighton: The University of Sussex, Institute of Development Studies.Google Scholar
  66. ———. 2013. Agenciamiento e (in)visibilidad de la diversidad sexual y de género en la construcción de paz. In Paz paso a paso. Una mirada desde los estudios de paz a los conflictos colombianos, ed. José Fernando Serrano-Amaya and Adam Baird, 53–78. Bogotá: Editorial universidad Javeriana, Cinep, Odecofi, Cerac.Google Scholar
  67. Sivakumaran, Sandesh. 2007. Sexual Violence Against Men in Armed Conflict. European Journal of International Law 18 (2): 253–276. doi: 10.1093/ejil/chm013.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. ———. 2010. Lost in Translation: UN Responses to Sexual Violence Against Men and Boys in Situations of Armed Conflict. International Review of the Red Cross 92 (877): 1–277.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Stein, Arlene. 2005. Make Room for Daddy: Anxious Masculinity and Emergent Homophobias in Neopatriarchal Politics. Gender & Society 19 (5): 601–620.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Thompson, Martha. 2006. Women, Gender, and Conflict: Making the Connections. Development in Practice 16 (3/4): 342–353.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. UNHCR. 2008. Guidance Note on Refugee Claims Relating to Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity, ed UN High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR). Geneve. Accessed 19 April 2014.
  72. Waetjen, Thembisa. 2004. Workers and Warriors: Masculinity and the Struggle for Nation in South Africa. Urbana: University of Illinois Press.Google Scholar
  73. Waylen, Georgina. 2003. Gender and Transitions: What Do We Know? Democratization 10 (1): 157–178.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Yuval-Davis, Nira. 1997. Gender & Nation. Thousand Oaks, London: Sage Publications.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • José Fernando Serrano-Amaya
    • 1
  1. 1.BogotaColombia

Personalised recommendations