The contingency theories of leadership that gained prominence during the 1970s and 1980s are still relevant to current leadership practice (Bush, 2008; Simpson, 1999). These theories hold that leadership is context-bound and that “context is the vehicle through which the agency of particular leaders may be empirically understood” (Gronn & Ribbins, 1996, p. 454). They are particularly important for yielding insights into leadership as it is understood and practised in such extraordinarily challenging contexts (Bush, 2008) as post-conflict societies.


  1. Aldrich, R. (1996). Education for the nation. London: Cassel.Google Scholar
  2. Altbach, P. G. (1971). Education and neocolonialism: A note. Comparative Education Review, 15(2), 237–239.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Altbach, P. G., & Kelly, G. P. (1978). Education and colonialism. New York: Longman.Google Scholar
  4. Anderson, M., Davis, M., Douglas, P., Lloyd, D., Niven, B., & Thiele, H. (2010). A collective act: Leading a small school. Camberwell, VIC: ACER Press.Google Scholar
  5. Botha, R. J. (2004). Excellence in leadership: Demands on the professional school principal. South African Journal of Education, 24(3), 239–243.Google Scholar
  6. Boughton, B. (2011). Timor-Leste: Building a post-conflict education system. In C. Brock & L. Pe Symaco (Eds.), Education in South-East Asia (pp. 177–196). Oxford: Symposium Books.Google Scholar
  7. Bowen, G. A. (2009). Document analysis as a qualitative research method. Qualitative Research Journal, 9(2), 27–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Briggs, C. (2000). Interview. Journal of Linguistic Anthropology, 9(1–2), 137–140.Google Scholar
  9. Bryman, A. (2004). Social research methods (2nd ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  10. Buckland, P. (2006). Post-conflict education: Time for a reality check? Forced Immigration Review, Education Supplement, 7–8. Retrieved February 25, 2013, from
  11. Burgess, R. G. (1984). In the field: An introduction to field research. London: Unwin.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Burns, R. (1994). Introduction to research methods (2nd ed.). Melbourne: Longman.Google Scholar
  13. Bush, K. D., & Saltarelli, D. (2000). The two faces of education in ethnic conflict: Towards a peacebuilding education for children. Florence: UNICEF.Google Scholar
  14. Bush, T. (2008). Leadership and management development in education. Los Angeles: Sage.Google Scholar
  15. Bush, T., & Jackson, D. (2002). A preparation for school leadership: International perspectives. Educational Management and Administration, 30(4), 417–429.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Bush, T., & Oduro, G. K. T. (2006). New principals in Africa: Preparation, induction and practice. Journal of Educational Administration, 44(4), 359–375.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Clarke, S., & O’Donoghue, T. (2013). The case for studying educational leadership at the individual school level in post-conflict societies. In S. Clarke & T. O’Donoghue (Eds.), School level leadership in post-conflict societies: The importance of context (pp. 1–8). London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  18. Clarke, S., & Wildy, H. (2004). Context counts: Viewing small school leadership from the inside out. Journal of Educational Administration, 42(5), 555–572.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Clayton, T. (1998). Building the new Cambodia: Educational destruction and construction under the Khmer Rouge, 1975–1979. History of Education Quarterly, 38(1), 1–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Corbin, J., & Strauss, A. (2008). Basics of qualitative research: Techniques and procedures for developing grounded theory. Los Angeles: Sage Publications.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Creswell, J. W. (2008). Educational research: Planning, conducting, and evaluating quantitative and qualitative research (3rd ed.). New Jersey: Pearson Education Inc.Google Scholar
  22. Davies, L. (2004). Education and conflict: Complexity and chaos. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  23. Day, C., Harris, A., & Hadfield, M. (2010). Grounding knowledge of schools in stakeholder realities: A multi-perspective study of effective school leaders. School Leadership and Management: Formerly School Organisation, 21(1), 19–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Dempster, N., Carter, L., Freakley, M., & Parry, L. (2004). Contextual influences on school leaders in Australia: Some data from a recent study of principals’ ethical decision-making. School Leadership & Management, 24(2), 163–174.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Earnest, J. (2013). Sri Lanka: School leadership in the conflict-affected north and east. In S. Clarke & T. O’Donoghue (Eds.), School level leadership in post-conflict societies: The importance of context (pp. 64–77). London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  26. Fletcher, B. A. (1936). Education and colonial development. London: Methuen & Co Ltd.Google Scholar
  27. Fullan, M. (2001). The new meaning of educational change (3rd ed.). New York: Teachers’ College Press.Google Scholar
  28. Gourevitch, P. (1998). We wish to inform you that tomorrow we will be killed with our families: Stories from Rwanda. New York: Farrar Straus and Giroux.Google Scholar
  29. Gronn, P., & Ribbins, P. (1996). Leaders in context: Postpositivist approaches to understanding educational leadership. Educational Administration Quarterly, 32(3), 452–473.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Hannum, E., & Buchmann, C. (2005). Global educational expansion and socio-economic development: An assessment of findings from the social sciences. World Development, 33(3), 333–354.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Hargreaves, A. (1993). Individualism and individuality: Reinterpreting the teacher culture. International Journal of Educational Research, 19(2), 227–246.Google Scholar
  32. Hargreaves, A., & Fullan, M. G. (1992). Introduction. In A. Hargreaves & M. Fullan (Eds.), Understanding teacher development. London: Cassell Villiers House.Google Scholar
  33. Huber, S. G., & West, M. (2002). Developing school leaders: A critical review of current practices, approaches and issues and some directions for the future. In K. Leithwood & P. Hallinger (Eds.), Second international handbook of educational leadership and administration (pp. 1071–1101). Kluwer: Dordrecht.Google Scholar
  34. Hudson, L. A., & Ozanne, J. L. (1988). Alternative ways of seeking knowledge in consumer research. The Journal of Consumer Research, 14(4), 508–521.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Johnson, D., & van Kalmthout, E. (2006). Education and conflict: Research, policy and practice. Oxford: Forced Migration Review (FMR) Education Supplement, Refugee Studies Centre.Google Scholar
  36. Kagawa, F. (2005). Emergency education: A critical review of the field. Comparative Education, 41(4), 487–503.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Kaldor, M. (2005). Old wars, cold wars, new wars, and the war on terror. International Politics, 42(4), 491–498.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Katz, J. (2001). Analytic induction. In N. J. Smelser & P. B. Baltes (Eds.), International encyclopedia of the social and behavioural sciences (pp. 480–484). Oxford, UK: Elsevier.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Kreso, A. P. (2008). The war and post-war impact on the educational system of Bosnia and Herzegovina. International Review of Education, 54, 353–374.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Leithwood, K., Harris, A., & Hopkins, D. (2008). Seven strong claims about successful school leadership. School Leadership and Management, 28(1), 27–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Leithwood, K., Louis, S. K., Anderson, S., & Wahlstrom, K. (2004). Review of research: How leadership influences student learning. Toronto, ON: The Wallace Foundation.Google Scholar
  42. Litz, D. (2011). Globalization and the changing face of educational leadership: Current trends and emerging dilemmas. International Education Studies, 4(3), 47–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Machel, G. (2001). The impact of war on children. Vancouver: UBC Press.Google Scholar
  44. Marks, H. M., & Printy, S. M. (2003). Principal leadership and school performance: An integration of transformational and instructional leadership. Educational Administration Quarterly, 39(3), 370–397.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. McCann, T., & Clark, E. (2005). Using unstructured interviews with participants who have schizophrenia. Nurse Researcher, 13(1), 7–18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. McGlynn, C., Zembylas, M., Bekerman, Z., & Gallagher, T. (Eds.). (2009). Peace education in conflict and post-conflict societies: Comparative perspectives. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  47. Melvern, L. R. (2000). A people betrayed: The role of the West in Rwanda’s genocide. London: Zed Books.Google Scholar
  48. Miller, E. (1985). Nature and needs of educational administration in the Commonwealth Caribbean. Caribbean Journal of Education, 12, 27–42.Google Scholar
  49. Milligan, J. A. (2010). The prophet and the engineer meet under the mango tree: Leadership, education, and conflict in the Southern Philippines. Educational Policy, 24(1), 28–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Minichiello, V., Aroni, R., Timewell, E., & Alexander, L. (1990). In-depth Interviewing: Researching people. Hong Kong: Longman Cheshire Pty Limited.Google Scholar
  51. Ministry of Education. (2013). 2012 Education statistics year book. Kigali: Ministry of Education.Google Scholar
  52. Moghalu, K. C. (2005). Rwanda’s genocide: The politics of global justice. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Mosselson, J., Wheaton, W., & Frisoli, P. G. (2009). Education and fragility: A synthesis of the literature. Journal of Education for International Development, 4(1), 1–17.Google Scholar
  54. National Institute of Statistics of Rwanda. (2012). Statistical year book 2012. Kigali: NISR.Google Scholar
  55. Nguyen, M., Elliott, J., Terlouw, C., & Pilot, A. (2009). Neocolonialism in education: Cooperative learning, Western pedagogy in an Asian context. Comparative Education, 45(1), 109–130.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Novelli, M. (2010). The new geopolitics of educational aid: From cold wars to holy wars? International Journal of Educational Development, 30(5), 453–459.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Novelli, M., & Lopes Cardozo, M. (2008). Conflict, education and the global south: New critical directions. International Journal of Educational Development, 28(4), 473–488.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Nyirazinyoye, L. (2011). Effect of a community-based mentoring program on behavioral and educational outcomes among children living in youth-headed households in Rwanda: Influential child and caregivers characteristics. Parkway: UMI dissertation publishing.Google Scholar
  59. O’Donoghue, T., & Clarke, S. (2010). Leading learning: Process, themes and issues in international contexts. London and New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  60. O’Donoghue, T. (2007). Planning your qualitative research project. An introduction to interpretive research in education. London and New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  61. Oplatka, I. (2004). The principalship in developing countries: Context, characteristics and reality. Comparative Education, 40(3), 427–448.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Otunga, R., Serem, D. K., & Kindiki, J. N. (2008). School leadership development in Africa. In J. Lumby, G. Crow, & P. Pashiardis (Eds.), International handbook on the preparation and development of school leaders (pp. 367–382). New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  63. Paulson, J. (Ed.). (2011a). Education, conflict, and development. Wallingford: Symposium Books.Google Scholar
  64. Paulson, J. (Ed.). (2011b). Education and reconciliation: Exploring conflict and post-conflict situations. London: Continuum International Publishing Group.Google Scholar
  65. Paulson, J., & Rappleye, J. (2007). Education and conflict: Essay review. International Journal of Educational Development, 27, 340–347.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Pidgeon, N., & Henwood, K. (1996). Grounded theory: Practical implementation. In J. T. E. Richardson (Ed.), Handbook of qualitative research methods for psychology and the social sciences (pp. 86–101). Leicester: The British Psychological Society.Google Scholar
  67. Prunier, G. (1995). The Rwanda crisis: A history of genocide. New York: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
  68. Psacharopoulos, G. (1985). Returns to education: A further international update and implications. The Journal of Human Resources, 20(4), 583–604.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Punch, K. F. (1998). Introduction to social research: Quantitative and qualitative approaches. London: Sage publications.Google Scholar
  70. Punch, K. F. (2000). Developing effective research proposals. London and New Delhi: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
  71. Punch, K. F. (2009). Introduction to research methods in education. Los Angeles: Sage Publications Ltd.Google Scholar
  72. Rizvi, F., Lingard, B., & Lavia, J. (2006). Postcolonialism and education: Negotiating a contested terrain. Pedagogy, Culture and Society, 14(3), 249–262.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Sarantakos, S. (2005). Social research (3rd ed.). New York: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  74. Sarason, S. B. (1995). Parental involvement and the political principle: Why the existing governance structure of schools should be abolished. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Publishers.Google Scholar
  75. Savin-Baden, M., & Major, C. H. (2012). Qualitative research: The essential guide to theory and practice. London and New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  76. Simpson, T. (1999). Progressive attempts to turn crisis into challenge. In L. C. Ehric & J. Knight (Eds.), Leadership in crisis? Restructuring principled practice (pp. 27–35). Flaxton, Queensland: Post Pressed.Google Scholar
  77. Sinclair, M. (2002). Planning education in and after emergencies. Paris: UNESCO International Institute for Educational Planning.Google Scholar
  78. Sinclair, M. (2007). Education in emergencies. Commonwealth Education Partnerships, 52–56. Retrieved from
  79. Smith, A. (2005). Education in the twenty-first century: Conflict, reconstruction and reconciliation. Compare: A Journal of Comparative and International Education, 35(4), 373–391.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Sommers, M. (2002). Children, education and war: Reaching Education for All (EFA) objectives in countries affected by conflict. Washington, DC: The World Bank.Google Scholar
  81. Sovachana, P. (2012). Progress and challenges of education in Cambodia today. In P. Sothirak, G. Wade, & M. Hong (Eds.), Cambodia progress and challenges since 1991 (pp. 292–319). Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies.Google Scholar
  82. Strauss, A., & Corbin, J. (1990). Basics of qualitative research. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  83. Strauss, A., & Corbin, J. (1994). Grounded theory methodology: An overview. In N. Denzin & Y. Lincoln (Eds.), The handbook of qualitative research (pp. 273–285). Thousand Oaks: Sage.Google Scholar
  84. Subedi, B., & Daza, S. L. (2008). The possibilities of postcolonial praxis in education. Race, Ethnicity and Education, 11(1), 1–10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Tikly, L. (2001). Globalisation and education in the postcolonial world: Towards a conceptual framework. Comparative Education, 37(2), 151–171.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Tomlinson, K., & Benefield, P. (2005). Education and conflict: Research and research possibilities. Slough, Berkshire: National Foundation for Educational Research.Google Scholar
  87. Torsti, P. (2009). Segregated education and texts: A challenge to peace in Bosnia and Herzegovina. International Journal on World Peace, 26(2), 65–82.Google Scholar
  88. Vroom, H. V., & Jago, G. A. (2007). The role of the situation in leadership. American Psychologist, 62(1), 17–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Watson, L. (2009). Issues in reinventing school leadership: Reviewing the OECD report on improving school leadership from an Australian perspective. Leading & Managing, 15(1), 1–13.Google Scholar
  90. Weinstein, M. H., Freedman, W. S., & Hughson, H. (2007). School voices: Challenges facing education systems after identity-based conflicts. Education, Citizenship and Social Justice, 2(1), 41–71.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. World Bank. (2005). Reshaping the future: Education and postconflict reconstruction. Washington, DC: The World Bank.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Graduate School of EducationThe University of Western AustraliaCrawley, PerthAustralia

Personalised recommendations