Neuroembryology and Congenital Malformations

  • Stanley Jacobson
  • Elliott M. Marcus
  • Stanley Pugsley


The brain undergoes a series of incredible changes in utero as it changes from a flat plate into a tube and then evolves into the convoluted cerebral hemisphere. This complex evolution results in several structures that start very close together (particularly the fornix, stria terminalis, corpus callosum, and anterior commissure) moving quite a distance apart.


Differentiation Growth cones Migration Neural crest cells Programmed cell death Malformations 


  1. Adams R, Sidman RL. Introduction to neuropathology. New York: McGraw-Hill; 1968.Google Scholar
  2. Appolloni I, Calzolari F. Apoptosis. Cell Tissue Res. 331; 2009.Google Scholar
  3. Bambergger ME, Landreth GE. Inflammation, apopotosis and Alzheimer’s disease. Neuroscientist. 2000;8:276–83.Google Scholar
  4. Becker LE, Armstrong DL, Chan F. Dendritic atrophy in children with Down's syndrome. Ann Neurol. 1986;20:520.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Berry M, Rogers AW. Histogenesis of mammalian neocortex. In: Hassler R, Stephans H, editors. Evolution of the forebrain. New York: Plenum Press; 1966. p. 197.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Crelin ES. Development of the nervous system. CIBA Clin Symp. 1974;26(2):1.Google Scholar
  7. Duman 2009Google Scholar
  8. Goodman CS. The likeness of being: phylogenetically conserved molecular mechanisms of growth cone guidance. Cell. 1994;78:353–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Jacobson M. Developmental neurobiology. 2nd ed. New York: Plenum Press; 1978.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Jana P, Michael D. The heterozygous reeler mouse: behavioural phenotype. Behav Brain Res. 2004;153(1):43–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Kengaku M. Neuronal migration. In: Encyclopedia of neuroscience. San Diego: Elsevier Ltd.; 2009. 540-29678-2_3917.Google Scholar
  12. Khosravi-Far R, Lockshin RA, Zakeri Z. Programmed cell death: general principles for studying cell...Methods in enzymology, vol. 442; 2008.Google Scholar
  13. Lemire RJ. Normal and abnormal development of the human nervous system. New York: Harper & Row; 1975.Google Scholar
  14. Love S, Louis D, Ellison (2008) Greenfield’s neuropatholgy. 2 vol. set 8th ed. CRC Press, 2008.Google Scholar
  15. Majon G, Joris I. Review. Apoptosis, oncosis, and necrosis. An overview of cell death. Am J Path. 1995;146:3–15.Google Scholar
  16. Marin-Padilla M. Structural abnormalities of the cerebral cortex in human chromosomal aberrations: a Golgi study. Brain Res. 1972;44:625.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Polleux C, Dehay H. Kennedy neurogenesiis and commitment of corticospinal neurons in reeler. J Neuorsci. 1998;18:9910.Google Scholar
  18. Rakic P. Mode of cell migration in the superficial layers of fetal monkey neocortex. J Comp Neurol. 1972;145:61–84.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Rao MS, Jacobson M. Developmental neurobiology. New York: Kluwer Academic Press; 2004.Google Scholar
  20. Reiner R, Carrazo CY, Shen Y, Weinnert M, Fanstmetta F, Dubyns WB. Isolation of a Miller Dieker Lissencephaly gene containing G protein Beta-subunit-like repeats. Nature. 1993;364:717.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Serafinin T, Kennedy TE, Galko MJ, Mirzayan C, Jessell TM, Tessler-Lavigne M. The netrins define a family of axon outgrowth-promoting proteins homologous to C. elegans UNC-6. Cell. 1994;78:409–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Sonj HJ, Stevens CF, Gage FH. Neural stem cells from adult hippocampus develop essential properties of fucnitons CNS neurons. Nat Neurosci. 2002;5:438–45.Google Scholar
  23. Taylor R. Cell death makes for lively research. J NIH Res. 1993;5:59–62.Google Scholar
  24. Victor M, Ropper A. Principals of neurology. 7th ed. McGraw Hill: New York; 2015.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Stanley Jacobson
    • 1
  • Elliott M. Marcus
    • 2
  • Stanley Pugsley
    • 3
  1. 1.BostonUSA
  2. 2.Jamaica PlainUSA
  3. 3.South Abington Twp.USA

Personalised recommendations