Non-nervous Elements in the CNS

  • Stanley Jacobson
  • Elliott M. Marcus
  • Stanley Pugsley


In addition to the billions of neurons, and the supporting glia within the central nervous system there are non-nervous elements that protect the CNS—1 the skull; 2 coverings of the brain, the meninges; 3 blood supply; and 4 the ventricular system.


Skull Meninges Arteries Veins Ventricular system 


  1. Jessen NA, Munk AS, Lundgaard I, Nedergaard M. The Glymphatic system: a Beginner’s guide. Neurochem Res. 2015;12:2583–99.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Stanley Jacobson
    • 1
  • Elliott M. Marcus
    • 2
  • Stanley Pugsley
    • 3
  1. 1.BostonUSA
  2. 2.Jamaica PlainUSA
  3. 3.South Abington Twp.USA

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